UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 20-F

 

☐ REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

OR

 

☒ ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019

 

OR

 

☐ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

OR

 

☐ SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

Date of event requiring this shell company report ________________

 

Commission file number 001-35165

 

Brainsway Ltd.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
 
N/A
(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)
 
Israel
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

 

19 Hartum Street, Bynet Building, 3rd Floor, Har HaHotzvim, Jerusalem, 9777518, Israel
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
Hadar Levy, Chief Financial Officer
19 Hartum Street, Bynet Building, 3rd Floor, Har HaHotzvim, Jerusalem, 9777518, Israel
Tel: +972-(2)-582-4030
(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)

 

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act.

 

Title of class   Trading Symbol(s)   Name of each exchange on which registered
American Depositary Shares, each representing two Ordinary Shares (1)   BWAY   NASDAQ Global Market
         
Ordinary Shares, par value NIS 0.04 per share   BWAY   Tel Aviv Stock Exchange

 

(1) Evidenced by American Depositary Receipts.

 

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

 

None
(Title of Class)

 

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:

 

None
(Title of Class)

 

 

 

 

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report: 22,236,368 Ordinary Shares

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

 

Yes ☐   No ☒

 

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act 1934.

 

Yes ☐   No ☒

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

 

Yes ☒   No ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).

 

Yes ☒   No ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer. See definition of “accelerated filer and large accelerated filer” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

 

Large Accelerated filer ☐ Accelerated filer ☐ Non-accelerated filer ☐
    Emerging growth company ☒

 

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

 

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

 

U.S. GAAP ☐

 

International Financing Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board ☒   Other ☐

 

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.

 

Item 17 ☐     Item 18 ☐

 

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).

 

Yes ☐   No ☒

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ITEM 1. IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS 1
ITEM 2. OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE 1
ITEM 3. KEY INFORMATION 1
ITEM 4. INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY 41
ITEM 4A. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS 70
ITEM 5. OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS 70
ITEM 6. DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES 83
ITEM 7. MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS 101
ITEM 8. FINANCIAL INFORMATION 104
ITEM 9. THE OFFER AND LISTING 104
ITEM 10. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION 105
ITEM 11. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK 119
ITEM 12. DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES OTHER THAN EQUITY SECURITIES 120
ITEM 13. DEFAULTS, DIVIDEND ARREARAGES AND DELINQUENCIES 122
ITEM 14. MATERIAL MODIFICATIONS TO THE RIGHTS OF SECURITY HOLDERS AND USE OF PROCEEDS 122
ITEM 15. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES 122
ITEM 16. [RESERVED] 122
ITEM 16A. AUDIT COMMITTEE FINANCIAL EXPERT 122
ITEM 16B. CODE OF ETHICS 122
ITEM 16C. PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES 123
ITEM 16D. EXEMPTIONS FROM THE LISTING STANDARDS FOR AUDIT COMMITTEES. 123
ITEM 16E. PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES BY THE ISSUER AND AFFILIATED PURCHASERS 123
ITEM 16F. CHANGE IN REGISTRANT’S CERTIFYING ACCOUNTANT 123
ITEM 16G. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE 124
ITEM 16H. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURE 124
ITEM 17. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 124
ITEM 18. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 124
ITEM 19. EXHIBITS 124
GLOSSARY OF TERMS
EXHIBIT INDEX 125

 

i

 

 

Unless the context otherwise requires, all references to “Brainsway,” “we,” “us,” “our,” the “Company” and similar designations refer to Brainsway Ltd., a limited liability company incorporated under the laws of the State of Israel, and its consolidated subsidiaries. The term “including” means “including but not limited to”, whether or not explicitly so stated. The term “NIS” refers to New Israeli Shekels, the lawful currency of the State of Israel, the terms “dollar”, “US$”, “$” or “U.S.” refer to U.S. dollars, the lawful currency of the United States of America. Our functional and presentation currency is the U.S. dollar. Unless otherwise indicated, U.S. dollar amounts herein (other than amounts originally receivable or payable in dollars) have been translated for the convenience of the reader from the original NIS amounts at the representative rate of exchange as of March 20, 2020 ($1 = NIS 3.60). The dollar amounts presented should not be construed as representing amounts that are receivable or payable in dollars or convertible into dollars, unless otherwise indicated. Foreign currency transactions in currencies other than U.S. dollars are translated in this Annual Report into U.S. dollars using exchange rates in effect at the date of the transactions.

 

The “Brainsway” name and design logo are our registered trademarks. Solely for convenience, the trademarks, service marks, and trade names referred to in this Annual Report are without the ® and TM symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or the rights of the applicable licensors to these trademarks, service marks and trade names. This Annual Report contains additional trademarks, service marks and trade names of others, which are the property of their respective owners. All trademarks, service marks and trade names appearing in this Annual Report are, to our knowledge, the property of their respective owners. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trademarks, service marks or trade names to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies.

 

This Annual Report includes statistics and other data relating to markets, market sizes and other industry data pertaining to our business that we have obtained from industry publications and surveys and other information available to us. Industry publications and surveys generally state that the information contained therein has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable. Market data and statistics are inherently predictive and speculative and are not necessarily reflective of actual market conditions. Such statistics are based on market research, which itself is based on sampling and subjective judgments by both the researchers and the respondents, including judgments about what types of products and transactions should be included in the relevant market. In addition, the value of comparisons of statistics for different markets is limited by many factors, including that (i) the markets are defined differently, (ii) the underlying information was gathered by different methods and (iii) different assumptions were applied in compiling the data. Accordingly, the market statistics included in this Annual Report should be viewed with caution. We believe that information from these industry publications included in this Annual Report is reliable.

 

ii

 

 

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

Some of the statements under the sections entitled “Item 3. Key Information — Risk Factors,” “Item 4. Information on the Company,” “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” and elsewhere in this Annual Report may include forward-looking statements. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms including “anticipates,” “believes,” “could,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “may,” “plans,” “potential,” “predicts,” “projects,” “should,” “will,” “would,” and similar expressions intended to identify forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements reflect our current views with respect to future events and are based on assumptions and subject to risks and uncertainties. In addition, the sections of this Annual Report entitled “Item 4. Information on the Company” contain information obtained from independent industry and other sources that we may not have independently validated. You should not put undue reliance on any forward-looking statements. Unless we are required to do so under U.S. federal securities laws or other applicable laws, we do not intend to update or revise any forward-looking statements.

 

Factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied in such forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to:

 

the adequacy of our existing capital to meet our future capital requirements;

 

market perception and acceptance of Deep TMS technology;

 

physician and patient satisfaction with the effectiveness and competitive advantages and benefits of our Deep TMS system;

 

availability of reimbursement from third-party payers, including insurance companies and Medicare;

 

our ability to commercialize Deep TMS, including internationally, by ourselves or through third-party distributors;

 

our ability to develop enhancements to our Deep TMS system through our research and development efforts;

 

our reliance on third parties to conduct our clinical trials and manufacture our product candidates for clinical testing;

 

our ability to complete and obtain favorable results from existing clinical trials, and to launch and successfully complete new clinical trials, for Deep TMS indications;

 

our ability to obtain regulatory approvals of Deep TMS and enhancements to our Deep TMS system on our anticipated time frames, or at all;

 

our ability to comply with applicable regulatory approvals and requirements; and

 

our ability to obtain and maintain adequate protection of our intellectual property, including intellectual property licensed to us.

 

iii

 

 

ITEM 1.IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS

 

Not applicable.

 

ITEM 2.OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

 

Not applicable.

 

ITEM 3.KEY INFORMATION

 

A.Selected Financial Data

 

The following table sets forth our selected financial data, which is derived from our financial statements prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”) as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board. We have derived the selected financial data as of December 31, 2019, 2018, and 2017 and for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018, and 2017 from our audited financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 20-F. You should read this selected financial data and other information provided in this Annual Report in conjunction with, and is qualified in its entirety by, our historical financial information including “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” and our financial statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report.

 

   Year Ended December 31 
   2019   2018   2017 
Statements of Operations Data            
Revenues  $23,101   $16,397   $11,145 
Cost of revenues   5,129    3,589    2,595 
Gross profit   17,972    12,808    8,550 
Research and development expenses, net   7,876    6,156    5,343 
Selling and marketing expenses   13,269    8,345    6,331 
General and administrative expenses   5,303    3,421    3,487 
Total operating expenses   26,448    17,922    15,161 
Total operating loss   8,476    5,114    6,611 
Financial expenses, net   1,430    1,156    274 
Loss before income taxes   9,906    6,270    6,885 
Income taxes   422    209    169 
Net loss   10,328    6,479    7,054 
Basic and diluted net loss per share(1)   (0.50)   (0.39)   (0.48)
Weighted average number of Ordinary Shares outstanding – basic and diluted   23,236,368    16,640,446    14,768,514 

 

   As of December 31 
   (U.S. Dollars, in thousands) 
   2019   2018   2017 
Balance Sheet Data            
Cash, cash equivalents and short-term deposits  $21,895   $9,069   $14,559 
Total assets   38,736    23,602    27,030 
Total liabilities   14,516    16,650    14,309 
Accumulated deficit   (71,909)   (61,581)   (55,102)
Total equity   38,736    6,952    12,721 

 

B.Capitalization and Indebtedness

 

Not applicable.

 

C.Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

 

Not applicable.

 

D.Risk Factors

 

You should carefully consider the risks we describe below, in addition to the other information set forth elsewhere in this Annual Report, including our financial statements and the related notes beginning on page F-1, before deciding to invest in our ordinary shares (the “Ordinary Shares”) or our American Depositary Shares (“ADSs”). The risks and uncertainties described below in this annual report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2019 are not the only risks facing us. We may face additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial. Any of the risks described below or incorporated by reference in this Form 20-F, and any such additional risks, could materially adversely affect our reputation, business, financial condition or results of operations. In such case, you may lose all or part of your investment.

 

1

 

 

Risks Related to our Financial Condition and Capital Requirements

 

We have a history of operating losses. We expect to incur additional losses in the future and may never be profitable.

 

We have incurred net losses since our inception, largely reflecting research and development, general and administrative expenses and sales and marketing expenses. We have experienced net losses of $10.3 million and $6.5 million for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively. As a result of ongoing losses, as of December 31, 2019, we had an accumulated deficit of $71.9 million. While we have sold and leased Deep TMS systems in various markets over the last few years, primarily for MDD and recently also for OCD, we expect to continue to incur significant sales and marketing, product development, regulatory and other expenses as we continue to expand our commercialization efforts to increase adoption of Deep TMS and expand existing relationships with our customers, to obtain regulatory clearances or approvals for Deep TMS in additional countries and for additional indications, and to develop new enhancements or features to our existing Deep TMS systems. Furthermore, our general and administrative expenses increased following our offering of ADSs on Nasdaq in April 2019 due to the increased costs associated with being a public company in the United States. The net losses we incur may fluctuate significantly from period to period. We will need to generate additional revenues to achieve and sustain profitability and even if we achieve profitability, we cannot be sure that we will remain profitable for any substantial period of time. Our failure to achieve or maintain profitability could negatively impact the value of the ADSs.

 

We cannot ensure that our existing capital will be sufficient to meet our capital requirements.

 

We believe that our existing capital, other sources of liquidity will be sufficient to meet our capital requirements. To date we have funded our operations primary through offerings of our securities, research and development grants from the Israel Innovation Authority and other sources, and a loan under our credit facility. We expect to generate revenues primarily through sales and lease income generated by the commercial distribution of Deep TMS systems for approved indications.

 

The adequacy of our available funds to meet our operating and capital requirements will depend on many factors, including our ability to achieve revenue growth and maintain favorable operating margins; our ability to increase the market share of Deep TMS and expand our operations and offerings, including our sales and marketing efforts; the cost, progress and results of our future research, product development and clinical programs for additional enhancements to Deep TMS and future indications for the system; the costs and timing of obtaining regulatory approvals for future indications of Deep TMS; our ability to improve or maintain coverage and reimbursement arrangements with third-party and government payers; the terms and conditions of commercial agreements for marketing and distribution of Deep TMS; the effect of competing technological and market developments; and costs incurred in enforcing and defending certain of the patents and other intellectual property rights upon which our technologies are based, to the extent such rights are challenged.

 

We cannot be certain that in the future alternative financing sources will be available to us at such times or in the amounts we need or whether we can negotiate commercially reasonable terms or at all, or that our actual cash requirements will not be greater than anticipated. Any issuance of additional equity or equity-linked securities could be dilutive to our existing shareholders, and any new equity securities could have rights, preferences and privileges superior to those of holders of the ADSs. Additional debt financing, if available, may involve covenants restricting our operations or our ability to incur additional debt, pay dividends, repurchase our shares, make investments and engage in merger, consolidation or asset sale transactions. If we are unable to obtain future financing through the methods we described above or through other means, our business may be materially impaired and we may be unable to complete our business objectives and may be required to cease operations, curtail one or more product development or commercialization programs, significantly reduce expenses, sell assets, seek a merger or joint venture partner, file for protection from creditors or liquidate all our assets.

 

Risks Related to our Business and Industry

 

Our success depends on Deep TMS as a treatment option for patients, as well as market perception and acceptance of TMS generally.

Our business depends entirely on the success of Deep TMS, our proprietary TMS solution. TMS is an emerging treatment option for patients. As a result, physician and patient awareness of TMS therapy as a treatment option for applicable brain disorders, and experience with TMS therapies, is limited. Because the market for TMS therapy is still developing and contains a limited number of market participants, sales of Deep TMS could be negatively impacted by unfavorable market reactions to TMS generally or to Deep TMS in particular. For example, in June 2018 researchers in medical centers of the U.S. Veterans Affairs reported research findings that showed that approximately 40% of the 81 patients with treatment-resistant major depression achieved remission in a randomized trial of a competitor’s TMS device, but the rate was virtually the same with sham treatments versus active stimulation. If the use of our Deep TMS system or other TMS therapies results in serious adverse events (e.g., seizures), or such products malfunction or are misused, patients and physicians may attribute such negative events to all TMS solutions generally, which may adversely affect market adoption of Deep TMS. In addition, if patients undergoing treatment with any available TMS solutions perceive the benefits to be inadequate or the administration of TMS to be too burdensome or inconvenient, and/or if adverse events and/or factors such as discomfort and noise with available TMS solutions are too numerous or severe compared to the relevant rates of alternative therapies or pharmaceutical options, it will be difficult to demonstrate the value of Deep TMS to patients and physicians. Additionally, psychiatrists may find it difficult to train existing employees and/or hire additional staff, allocate sufficient space or operate our device given that psychiatry is a field not traditionally associated with medical equipment treatment options. As a result of any one or a combination of these reasons, demand for and the use of Deep TMS may decline or may not increase at the pace or to the levels we expect. These reported findings may have a negative effect on market perception of the effectiveness of the TMS therapy in general, and by extension Deep TMS.

 

Even if TMS therapy is widely accepted by physicians and patients, our success will depend in large part on our ability to educate and train physicians and patients, and to successfully demonstrate the safety, tolerability, ease of use, efficacy, cost effectiveness and other advantages of Deep TMS. We have been engaging in an active marketing campaign to raise awareness of Deep TMS and its benefits, but we cannot assure that these efforts will be successful or that they will not prove to be too costly. Physicians may find patient set up and the subsequent procedures for future treatment sessions to be difficult or complicated compared to competing treatment methods. Any of these factors could slow market adoption of Deep TMS.

 

2

 

 

Our long-term growth depends on our ability to increase market penetration and further commercialize Deep TMS, as well as develop enhancements and features to the Deep TMS system through our research and development efforts. If we fail to do so, we may be unable to achieve future growth.

 

Our strategy depends on our ability to further commercialize and increase market penetration of Deep TMS for MDD and OCD, develop and seek regulatory approvals of Deep TMS for new indications and add new enhancements or features for the Deep TMS system. These goals are also designed to respond to changing customer demands and competitive pressures and technologies. Our industry is characterized by intense competition, including from existing treatments (e.g., anti-depressant medications), a growing number of focal TMS competitors, rapid technological changes, new product introductions and enhancements, price competition and evolving industry standards. It is important that we anticipate changes in technology and market demand, as well as physician practices to successfully develop, obtain clearance or approval, if required, and successfully introduce new, enhanced and competitive technologies to meet our prospective customers’ needs on a timely and cost-effective basis.

 

We might be unable to further commercialize Deep TMS for approved indications or develop or obtain regulatory clearances or approvals to market Deep TMS for new indications, or to develop and obtain regulatory approvals for enhancements or new features for the Deep TMS system. Additionally, Deep TMS for MDD, OCD and any future indications, even if cleared, might not be accepted by physicians or the third-party payers who reimburse for the procedures performed with our products. Our risk share pricing model to capture increased market share may also not be successful, and we may be unable to devise new pricing strategies that are attractive to customers. The success of any new indications, enhancements or features for the Deep TMS system will depend on numerous additional factors, including our ability to:

 

properly identify and anticipate clinician and patient needs;

 

demonstrate the benefits associated with the use of Deep TMS when compared to the products and devices of our competitors;

 

demonstrate the safety and efficacy of new indications, and obtain regulatory approvals of Deep TMS for such indications;

 

adequately protect our intellectual property and avoid infringing upon the intellectual property rights of third parties; and

 

develop and obtain the necessary regulatory clearances or approvals for enhancements or features for the Deep TMS system.

 

If we do not develop and obtain regulatory clearances or approvals for new indications, enhancements or features in time to meet market demand, or if there is insufficient demand for these indications, enhancements or features, our results of operations will suffer. Our research and development efforts may require a substantial investment of time and resources before we are adequately able to determine the commercial viability of a new indication for Deep TMS, any enhancements to the Deep TMS system or any other innovation. In addition, even if we are able to develop enhancements or new features for Deep TMS, these enhancements or features may not produce sales in excess of the costs of development and they may be quickly rendered obsolete by changing customer preferences or the introduction by our competitors of products embodying new technologies or enhancements or features.

 

Furthermore, we must carefully manage our introduction of new indications. If potential customers believe such indications will offer enhanced enhancements or features or would be available at a more attractive price, they may delay purchases until such indications are available. We may also have excess or obsolete inventory as we transition to indications, and we have limited experience in managing product transitions.

 

3

 

 

Our success also depends upon patient satisfaction with the effectiveness of Deep TMS.

 

In order to generate significant revenues from Deep TMS, patients must be satisfied with the effectiveness of Deep TMS. We train our physician customers to properly diagnose patient candidates and select the appropriate patient candidates for treatment using the Deep TMS system, explain to their patients the time-period over which the results from a treatment course can be expected to occur, and measure the success of treatments using medical guidelines. However, our physician customers may not properly diagnose or select appropriate patient candidates for Deep TMS treatment, which may produce results that do not meet patients’ expectations. To the extent physicians do not make the proper measurements for a specific patient or use the same procedures at each treatment session, it could result in variability of the treatment efficacy and results for the patient. If patients are not satisfied with the results of Deep TMS, our reputation and future results of operations may be adversely affected.

 

We operate in a very competitive environment and if we are unable to compete successfully against our existing or potential competitors, our revenues and operating results may be negatively affected.

 

Our currently marketed Deep TMS systems for MDD, OCD and any future indications are or will be subject to intense competition. The industry in which we operate is subject to rapid change and is highly sensitive to the introduction of new products or other market activities of current or new industry participants. Our ability to compete successfully will depend on our ability to develop and obtain regulatory clearances of Deep TMS for indications that reach the market in a timely manner, to receive adequate coverage and reimbursement from third-party payers, and to successfully demonstrate to physicians and patients the merits of Deep TMS compared to the products of our competitors. If we are not successful in convincing others of the merits of Deep TMS or educating them on the use of the Deep TMS system, they may not use our system or use them effectively and we may be unable to increase our revenues.

 

Deep TMS competes with several existing focal TMS competitors, including Neuronetics, Magventure, MAG & More, CloudTMS, Magstim and Nexstim. Competing TMS therapy companies have developed or may develop treatments that can be administered for shorter time periods or may develop treatments that have improved efficacy when compared to our products or that require a less significant investment of resources from physicians. For instance, one of our focal TMS competitors has received FDA clearance for a TMS treatment protocol that can be administered within a shorter time period than Deep TMS. In addition, psychiatrists and other customers may not be able to easily compare Deep TMS to our focal TMS competitors given the absence of head-to-head studies.

 

We also face competition from pharmaceutical and other companies, many of which have greater resources than we do, that develop competitive products, such as anti-depressant medications (including but not limited to a nasal spray utilizing the drug esketamine, which was recently approved by the FDA for use in conjunction with an oral antidepressant) and to a lesser degree, ECT and other neuromodulation treatment options. Our commercial opportunity could be reduced or eliminated if these competitors develop and commercialize anti-depressant medications or other treatments that are safer or more effective than Deep TMS, or are offered at more competitive prices, are more easily administered to patients or are otherwise more attractive to our customers and patients. At any time, these and other potential market entrants may develop treatment alternatives that may make Deep TMS less competitive.

 

We also note that competition varies based on the indication, and some of the indications we are advancing may face marketability challenges based on existing treatment options. For example, there are a variety of smoking cessation products currently available on the market, including nicotine patch treatment. Electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, are also widely available substitutes for tobacco smoking. Deep TMS for smoking cessation, if FDA-cleared, may not be a marketable alternative to these existing options.

 

In addition, our competitors may have more established distribution networks than we do, or may be acquired by enterprises that have more established distribution networks than we do. Our competitors may also develop and patent processes or products earlier than we can or obtain domestic or international regulatory clearances or approvals for competing products more rapidly than we can, which could impair our ability to develop and commercialize similar products. In addition, we compete with our competitors to engage the services of independent distributors outside the United States, both those presently working with us and those with whom we hope to work as we expand.

 

4

 

 

Furthermore, our competitors may be seeking predicate FDA approvals in other psychiatric and neurological indications, and TMS products of various companies are frequently used off-label, and in certain circumstances, are marketed outside of the United States for other indications.

 

If we are unable to adequately train physicians and other treatment providers and operators on the safe and appropriate use of our Deep TMS systems, we may be unable to achieve our expected growth.

 

There is a learning process involved for treatment providers to become proficient in the use of our Deep TMS systems, which requires us to spend considerable time and resources for training. It is critical to the success of our commercialization efforts to train a sufficient number of physicians and to provide them with adequate, ongoing instruction and training in the use of our Deep TMS systems. This training process generally requires physicians to review and study product materials and engage in hands-on training sessions. This training process may also take longer than expected or be more complicated than the physicians or their personnel are comfortable with and may therefore affect our ability to increase sales. Convincing physicians to dedicate the time and energy necessary for adequate training is challenging, and we may not be successful in these efforts.

 

The use of our Deep TMS system to treat OCD requires a special procedure to provoke the patient to exhibit symptoms of OCD while the patient is treated with Deep TMS. This procedure requires special training and may make the treatment more difficult to apply than alternative treatments, as the treatment must be tailored for the condition of each patient. As a result, this may lead to a variability of the overall results and between patients, which could discourage use of Deep TMS for OCD. In addition, if the physicians and operators do not apply the treatment of OCD patients properly or experience difficulties in the use of the system for OCD, this could reduce the level of satisfaction with this system for OCD and adversely affect our revenues and our operating results.

 

We may be unable to forecast our future growth accurately.

 

We may be unable to predict future growth related to Deep TMS for MDD, OCD and other psychiatric indications because these disorders are inherently difficult to diagnose and there are frequent co-morbidities (overlap) in these disorders that complicate treatment methods. Diagnosis for psychiatric disorders, such as MDD and OCD, is based on an individual’s reported experiences and mental status examination, and accordingly is subject to significant error. For example, it is estimated that about half of the individuals in the United States who experience a major depressive episode annually are not diagnosed correctly. In addition, there is a rising trend in which primary care providers, rather than mental health professionals, prescribe anti-depressant medications. Primary care providers often prescribe anti-depressants without a psychiatric diagnosis of disease. In 73% of visits in which a primary care provider prescribed an anti-depressant, patients did not have a psychiatric diagnosis. Without a psychiatric diagnosis, treatment cannot be tailored to the underlying condition. In one study in a managed care environment, 89% of patients did not receive an adequate medication dosage or duration of treatment from their clinicians. Accordingly, a significant portion of MDD patients that are considered treatment-resistant may be unresponsive to first-line treatment as a result of incorrect diagnosis, and any such patients may not respond to Deep TMS treatment. In addition, the H-Coils for our Deep TMS systems may prove to be interchangeable and clinicians may be able to treat patients with multiple disorders in the same procedure. As a result of the foregoing factors, the addressable market for Deep TMS for MDD and OCD may be smaller than we currently anticipate, and predictions for our future growth may prove to be inaccurate. This may have a materially adverse effect on our future results of operations.

 

We may be unable to manage our anticipated growth effectively, which could make it difficult to execute our business strategy.

 

We have been growing rapidly and have a relatively short history of operating as a commercial-stage company. We intend to continue to grow our business operations and may experience periods of rapid growth and expansion. This anticipated growth could create a strain on our organizational, administrative and operational infrastructure, including our supply chain operations, quality control, technical support and customer service, sales force management and general and financial administration. These risks increase as we expand into new countries. We may be unable to maintain the quality, or delivery timelines, of our products or customer service or satisfy customer demand if our business grows too rapidly. Our ability to manage our growth properly will require us to continue to improve our operational, financial and management controls, and our reporting systems and procedures. We may implement new enterprise software systems in a number of areas affecting a broad range of business processes and functional areas. The time and resources required to implement these new systems is uncertain and failure to complete this in a timely and efficient manner could harm our business.

 

5

 

 

As our commercial operations and sales volume grow, we will need to continue to increase our workflow capacity for our supply chain, customer service, training and education personnel, billing, accounting reporting and general process improvements and expand our internal quality assurance program, among other things. Our current work force may not be sufficient to handle our expanding growth and we will be required to expand and train these personnel as we increase our sales efforts. We may not successfully implement these increases in scale or the expansion of our personnel, which could harm our business.

 

If we are unable to successfully expand our sales and customer support team and adequately address our customers’ needs, it could negatively impact revenues and market acceptance of Deep TMS and we may never generate sufficient revenues to achieve or sustain profitability.

 

As of December 31, 2019, we had 107 employees, including 28 employees in sales and marketing. Our operating results are directly dependent upon the sales and marketing efforts of our sales and customer support team and, to a lesser extent, on our independent third party distributors outside of the United States. If our employees or our independent distributors fail to adequately promote, market and sell or lease our Deep TMS systems, our revenues could significantly decrease and/or fail to meet our targets.

 

In addition, our future revenues will largely depend on our ability to successfully execute our marketing efforts and adequately address our customers’ needs. We believe it is necessary to expand our sales force, including by hiring additional sales representatives or distributors with specific technical backgrounds that can support our customers’ needs.

 

As we develop and seek regulatory clearances for new indications, enhancements and features and increase our marketing efforts, we will need to expand the reach of our marketing and sales networks. Our future success will depend largely on our ability to continue to hire, train, retain and motivate skilled employees, and distributors with significant technical knowledge in various areas. New hires require training and take time to achieve full productivity. If we fail to train new hires adequately, or if we experience high turnover in our sales force in the future, new hires may not become as productive as may be necessary to maintain or increase our sales. If we are unable to expand our sales and marketing capabilities domestically and internationally, we may be unable to effectively commercialize our Deep TMS systems, which could harm our business.

 

Failure to secure or maintain adequate coverage and reimbursement of our Deep TMS system for the currently authorized indications and other indications for which we obtain FDA authorization in the future, if any, may make physicians reluctant to use or recommend Deep TMS and have a material adverse effect on our sales, results of operations, and financial condition.

 

Patients generally rely on third-party payers to reimburse all or part of the costs associated with outpatient treatment services. Patients may, thus, be unwilling to undergo, and physicians may be unwilling to prescribe, a given course of treatment in the absence of adequate coverage and reimbursement. Accordingly, our ability to successfully commercialize our Deep TMS system depends significantly on the extent to which treatment sessions using Deep TMS are covered and reimbursed by government healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid (among others), commercial health insurers, managed care organizations, and other third-party payers.

 

Third-party payers are increasingly examining the medical necessity and cost effectiveness of medical products and services, in addition to safety and efficacy. Significant uncertainty exists as to the reimbursement status of any newly approved (or cleared) products or therapies, such as Deep TMS for OCD, which represent novel approaches to treatment of a disease or condition. Even if a third-party payer covers a particular treatment that uses Deep TMS, the resulting reimbursement rate may not be adequate to cover a provider’s cost to purchase or lease the Deep TMS system or ensure such transaction is profitable for the provider. Reimbursement by a third-party payer may depend upon a number of factors, including the third-party payer’s determination that a treatment is neither experimental nor investigational, safe, effective, and medically necessary, appropriate for the specific patient, cost-effective, supported by peer-reviewed medical journals and included in clinical practice guidelines.

 

6

 

 

In the United States, there is no uniform policy of coverage and reimbursement among third-party payers, including private insurers. Therefore, coverage and reimbursement for treatments can differ significantly from payer to payer. However, many third-party payers often rely upon Medicare coverage policies and payment limitations in setting their own coverage and reimbursement policies and methodologies. Private insurance coverage for Deep TMS as a treatment for MDD generally requires three to four failures of anti-depressant medications.

 

Medicare coverage for Deep TMS as a treatment for MDD generally requires that certain, specified clinical criteria relating to medical necessity are met (and documented). In particular, subject to variations by payor and locale, under most applicable payor policies, Deep TMS may be covered for MDD if: (i) prescribed by a licensed physician, knowledgeable in the use of TMS (ii) as a treatment for an adult with a confirmed diagnosis of MDD and no contraindications, (iii) where there is sufficient documentation of: (a) failure of a trial of psychotherapy known to be effective in treating MDD without significant improvement in depressive symptoms and (b) one of the following:

 

(1)resistance to treatment with psychopharmacologic agents for depression, as evidenced by lack of clinically significant response to four trials of such agents, including at least two different agent classes and two augmentation trials,

 

(2)Inability to tolerate a therapeutic dose of medications as evidenced by four trials of psychopharmacologic agents with distinct side effects,

 

(3)History of good response to repetitive TMS in a previous depressive episode (at least three months since the prior episode), or

 

(4)Individual is a candidate for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and TMS is less burdensome to the patient.

 

Reimbursement for Deep TMS as an MDD treatment is also generally limited to 36 treatment sessions.

 

Obtaining and maintaining adequate reimbursement of Deep TMS for OCD, or for any future indications, as applicable, may be difficult. Currently, there is no third-party coverage of Deep TMS as a treatment for OCD, as payors that have evaluated Deep TMS for OCD coverage have not yet concluded that it is a reasonable and necessary therapy for OCD. We are working to gather and submit additional clinical data in order to sufficiently demonstrate the efficacy of Deep TMS for the treatment of OCD. These efforts may be expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, it may take significant time to obtain sufficient reimbursement coverage of Deep TMS for OCD. We may be required to conduct expensive pharmacoeconomic studies to justify coverage and reimbursement or the level of reimbursement compared to existing approved biologics and other therapies. There may be significant delays in obtaining coverage and reimbursement for newly approved therapies in the United States, and coverage may be more limited than the indications for which the product is approved by the FDA or similar regulatory authorities outside the United States. Further, there is no guarantee that Deep TMS will ever be adequately covered or reimbursed for OCD or any other future indication for which we obtain authorization, if any.

 

In addition, the U.S. federal government and state legislatures have continued to implement cost containment programs, including price controls and restrictions on coverage and reimbursement. To contain costs, governmental healthcare programs and third-party payers are increasingly challenging the price, scrutinizing the medical necessity and reviewing the cost-effectiveness of medical treatments.

 

7

 

 

Outside of the United States, reimbursement systems vary significantly by country. Many foreign markets, including Japan, have government-managed healthcare systems that govern reimbursement for psychiatric treatments and procedures. Additionally, some foreign reimbursement systems provide for limited payments in a given period and therefore result in extended payment periods. If adequate levels of reimbursement from third-party payers outside of the United States, including Japan, are not obtained, international sales and lease transactions for the Deep TMS system may not materialize or grow significantly.

 

The marketability of Deep TMS may suffer if the government and third-party payers fail to provide adequate coverage and reimbursement. Even if favorable coverage and reimbursement status is attained, less favorable coverage policies and reimbursement rates may be implemented in the future.

 

We rely on third-party suppliers for some components used in manufacturing Deep TMS, and we may be unable to immediately transition to alternative parties for these components.

 

We rely on suppliers for most of the components used in manufacturing Deep TMS, including the computer controlling the stimulator, the helmet and the arm of the helmet, and we may not have sufficient contractual assurances for the long-term supply of these components. We recently began assembling our proprietary stimulator in our Deep TMS systems for MDD and OCD; however, we remain dependent on a single source third-party supplier for stimulators used in older versions of our Deep TMS system, and accordingly we must still rely on third-party suppliers for those older versions. In addition, we rely on the outsourcing company utilized for the manufacture of certain components in our newer systems, including our proprietary stimulator and various other components. For us to be successful, our suppliers and contract manufacturer must be able to provide us with components in sufficient quantities, in compliance with regulatory requirements, in accordance with agreed upon specifications, at acceptable costs and on a timely basis. While these suppliers have generally met our demand requirements on a timely basis in the past, their ability and willingness to continue to do so going forward may be limited for several reasons, including our lack of long-term agreements with those suppliers, our relative importance as a customer of those suppliers, or, as applicable, their ability to produce the components for or provide assembly services to manufacture our Deep TMS systems. An interruption in our commercial operations could occur if we encounter delays or difficulties in securing these components, if we cannot obtain an acceptable substitute.

 

Any transition to a new supplier or contract manufacturer could be time-consuming and expensive, may result in interruptions in our operations and product delivery, could affect the performance specifications of Deep TMS or could require that we modify its design. If we are required to change our contract manufacturer, we will be required to verify that the new manufacturer maintains facilities, procedures and operations that comply with our quality and applicable regulatory requirements, which could further impede our ability to manufacture Deep TMS systems in a timely manner. If the change in manufacturer results in a significant change to any product, a new 510(k) clearance from the FDA or similar non-U.S. regulatory authorization may be necessary before we implement the change, which could cause a substantial delay. We cannot assure you that we will be able to identify and engage alternative suppliers or contract manufacturers on similar terms or without delay. Furthermore, our contract manufacturer could require us to move to a different production facility. The occurrence of any of these events could harm our ability to meet the demand for Deep TMS in a timely and cost-effective manner.

 

We face risks associated with our international business.

 

We currently market and sell Deep TMS systems outside of the United States in various countries and/or intend to market and expand the commercialization of Deep TMS in other markets, including Japan, Europe and various Asian countries.

 

We are assessing the opportunity to expand into other international markets. However, our expansion plans may not be realized, or if realized, may not be successful. We expect each market to have particular regulatory hurdles to overcome, and future developments in these markets, including the uncertainty relating to governmental policies and regulations, could harm our business.

 

8

 

 

The sale, lease and shipment of the Deep TMS system across international borders, as well as the purchase of components and products from international sources, subjects us to extensive U.S. and other foreign governmental trade, import and export and customs regulations and laws. Compliance with these regulations and laws is costly and exposes us to penalties for non-compliance. We expect our international activities will be dynamic over the foreseeable future as we continue to pursue opportunities in international markets. Our international business operations are subject to a variety of risks, including:

 

difficulties in staffing and managing foreign and geographically dispersed operations, to the extent we establish non-U.S. operations;

 

differing and multiple payer reimbursement regimes, government payers or patient self-pay systems;

 

difficulties in determining and creating the proper sales pathway in new, international markets;

 

compliance with various U.S. and international laws, including export control laws and the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 (FCPA), and anti-money laundering laws;

 

differing regulatory requirements for obtaining marketing authorizations for our products in non-U.S. jurisdictions;

 

changes in, or uncertainties relating to, foreign rules and regulations that may impact our ability to sell our products, perform services or repatriate profits to the United States;

 

tariffs and trade barriers, export regulations, sanctions and other regulatory and contractual limitations on our ability to sell our products in certain foreign markets;

 

potential adverse tax consequences, including imposition of limitations on or increase of withholding and other taxes on remittances and other payments by foreign subsidiaries or joint ventures;

 

imposition of differing labor laws and standards;

 

armed conflicts or economic, political or social instability in foreign countries and regions;

 

fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates;

 

an inability, or reduced ability, to protect our intellectual property, including any effect of compulsory licensing imposed by government action; and

 

availability of government subsidies or other incentives that benefit competitors in their local markets that are not available to us.

 

We rely and in the future expect to rely on a network of third-party distributors to market and distribute our products internationally, and if we are unable to maintain and expand this network, we may be unable to generate anticipated revenues.

 

We rely, and expect to rely in the future, on a network of third-party distributors to market and distribute our products in international markets. We are assessing the opportunity to continue expanding into other international markets. We may face significant challenges and risks in managing a geographically dispersed distribution network. We have limited ability to control any third-party distributors and agents. Our distributors and agents may be unable to successfully market, lease and sell our products and may not devote sufficient time and resources to support the marketing, sales, education and training efforts that we believe enable the products to develop, achieve or sustain market acceptance. Additionally, in some international jurisdictions, we rely on our distributors to manage the regulatory process, while complying with all applicable rules and regulations, and we are dependent on their ability to do so effectively. In addition, if a dispute arises with a distributor or if a distributor is terminated by us or goes out of business, it may take time to locate an alternative distributor, to seek appropriate regulatory approvals with the new distributor and to train new personnel to market our products, and our ability to sell those systems in the region formerly serviced by such terminated distributor could be harmed. Any of these factors could reduce our revenues from affected markets, increase our costs in those markets or damage our reputation. In addition, if an independent distributor or agent were to depart and be retained by one of our competitors, we may be unable to prevent that distributor or agent from helping competitors solicit business from our existing customers, which could further adversely affect our sales. As a result of our reliance on third-party distributors and agents, we may be subject to disruptions and increased costs due to factors beyond our control, including labor strikes, third-party error and other issues. If the services of any of these third-party distributors and agents become unsatisfactory, we may experience delays in meeting our customers’ demands and we may be unable to find a suitable replacement on a timely basis or on commercially reasonable terms. Any failure to deliver products in a timely manner may damage our reputation and could cause us to lose potential customers.

 

9

 

 

Clinical trials involve a lengthy and expensive process with an uncertain outcome, which may delay or cause us to abandon the development of Deep TMS for additional indications.

 

We are currently at various stages of completed, ongoing or planned clinical trials of Deep TMS for new indications. Development of medical devices includes pre-clinical studies and sometimes clinical trials, and is a long, expensive and uncertain process, subject to delays and failure at any stage. Clinical trials for Deep TMS involve certain specific risks, including factors related to trial design and patient enrollment. Additionally, if we are unable to recruit a sufficient number of patients for our clinical trials, we may be unable to generate sufficient data to support marketing authorization. Moreover, our research and development, pre-clinical and clinical trial activities are subject to extensive regulation and review by numerous governmental authorities. We cannot predict whether we will encounter problems with any of our completed, ongoing or planned clinical trials, which would cause us or regulatory authorities to delay or suspend clinical trials, or delay the analysis of data from completed or ongoing clinical trials. We estimate that clinical trials involving various indications of Deep TMS will continue for several years; however, such trials may also take significantly longer to complete and may cost more money than we have expected. Furthermore, the data obtained from the studies and trials may be inadequate to support regulatory authorizations or to enable market acceptance of certain indications of Deep TMS. Failure can occur at any stage of testing, and we may experience numerous unforeseen events during, or as a result of, the clinical trial process that could delay or prevent commercialization of the current, or a future, version of, Deep TMS, for any particular indication, including but not limited to:

 

delays in securing clinical investigators or trial sites for the clinical trials;

 

delays in obtaining institutional review board and other regulatory approvals to commence a clinical trial;

 

slower than anticipated patient recruitment and enrollment;

 

negative or inconclusive results from clinical trials;

 

unforeseen safety issues;

 

an inability to monitor patients adequately during or after treatment;

 

placement of a clinical trial on hold by the FDA, institutional review boards/ethics committees or other regulatory authorities;

 

changes in governmental regulations or administrative actions, including governmental changes in permissible endpoints or other measures utilized in clinical trials;

 

problems with investigator or patient compliance with the trial protocols;

 

the FDA or other regulators disagreeing as to the design, protocol or implementation of our clinical trials;

 

exceeding budgeted costs due to difficulty in accurately predicting costs associated with clinical trials;

 

the quality of the products falling below acceptable standards; and

 

the inability to manufacture sufficient quantities of our products to commence or complete clinical trials.

 

Additionally, the FDA or other regulatory entities may disagree with our interpretation of the data from our pre-clinical studies and clinical trials, or may find the clinical trial design, conduct or results inadequate to demonstrate safety or efficacy, and may require us to pursue additional pre-clinical studies or clinical trials, which could further delay authorization of additional indications for Deep TMS. A number of companies in the medical device and biotechnology industries, including those with greater resources and experience than us, have suffered significant setbacks in advanced clinical trials, even after seeing promising results in earlier clinical trials. We do not know whether any clinical trials we or our clinical partners may conduct will demonstrate adequate efficacy and safety to result in regulatory authorization to market new indications for Deep TMS. In addition, the results of our past clinical trials of Deep TMS may not be predictive of future trial results. If later-stage clinical trials involving Deep TMS for new indications do not produce favorable results, our ability to obtain regulatory authorization for such indications may be adversely impacted, which will have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

10

 

 

We rely in part on third parties to conduct our clinical trials. If these third parties fail to perform their duties on time or as expected, we may not be able to obtain regulatory authorization for additional indications that we may seek for Deep TMS.

 

Our clinical trials are managed by our both own staff and personnel as well as certain third-parties, including clinical trial sites, medical institutions, clinical research organizations, or CROs, and private practices, for, among other things, site monitoring, statistical work and electronic data capture in our clinical trials. Nevertheless, we are responsible for ensuring that each of our clinical trials is conducted in accordance with applicable protocols, and legal, regulatory and scientific standards, including current good clinical practices, or cGCPs, which are set forth in regulations and guidelines enforced by the FDA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities for clinical trials. If we or any such third parties fail to comply with applicable cGCPs, the clinical data generated in such trials may be deemed unreliable and the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may require us to perform additional clinical trials before granting a marketing authorization for any particular indication. In addition, if such third parties do not devote sufficient time and resources to our clinical trials or otherwise carry out their contractual duties or obligations or meet expected deadlines, if they need to be replaced or if the quality or accuracy of the clinical data they assist in obtaining is compromised due to the failure to adhere to our clinical protocols, regulatory requirements or for other reasons, our clinical trials may be extended, delayed or terminated, and we may not be able to obtain regulatory authorization for or successfully commercialize Deep TMS for a specified indication.

 

Our collaboration arrangements may not be successful, which could adversely affect our ability to develop and commercialize our products.

 

We are currently involved in a number of research and development collaborations with third parties relating to the development of new technology and additional uses of Deep TMS. These and any future collaborations that we enter into may not be successful. The success of our collaboration arrangements will depend heavily on the efforts and activities of our collaborators. Collaborations are subject to numerous risks, which may include that:

 

collaborators have significant discretion in determining the efforts and resources that they will apply to collaborations;

 

collaborators may not pursue development and commercialization of our products or may elect not to continue or renew development or commercialization programs based on trial or test results or may change their strategic focus due to the acquisition of competitive products,

 

availability of funding or other external factors, such as a business combination that diverts resources or creates competing priorities;

 

collaborators could independently develop, or develop with third parties, products that compete directly or indirectly with our products or product candidates;

 

a collaborator with marketing, manufacturing and distribution rights to one or more products may not commit sufficient resources to or otherwise not perform satisfactorily in carrying out these activities;

 

we could grant exclusive rights to our collaborators that would prevent us from collaborating with others;

 

collaborators may not properly maintain or defend our intellectual property rights or may use our intellectual property or proprietary information in a way that gives rise to actual or threatened litigation that could jeopardize or invalidate our intellectual property or proprietary information or expose us to potential liability;

 

disputes may arise between us and a collaborator that causes the delay or termination of the research, development or commercialization of our current or future products or that results in costly litigation or arbitration that diverts management attention and resources;

 

our collaborators may default on their obligations to us and we may be forced to terminate, litigate or renegotiate such arrangements;

 

our collaborators may have claims that we breached our obligations to them which may result in termination, renegotiation, litigation or delays in performance of such arrangements;

 

collaborations may be terminated, and, if terminated, may result in a need for additional capital to pursue further development or commercialization of the applicable current or future products;

 

collaborators may own or co-own intellectual property covering our products that results from our collaborating with them, and in such cases, we would not have the exclusive right to develop or commercialize such intellectual property; and

 

a collaborator’s sales and marketing activities or other operations may not be in compliance with applicable laws resulting in civil or criminal proceedings.

 

If any of our collaboration arrangements are not successful, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

11

 

 

If product liability lawsuits are brought against us, our business may be harmed, and we may be required to pay damages that exceed our insurance coverage.

 

Our business exposes us to potential product liability claims that are inherent in the testing, manufacture and sale of medical devices for the treatment of MDD, OCD and other potential indications. Our treatments are designed for patients who suffer from significant psychiatric and neurological disorders and addictions, and these patients are more likely to experience significant adverse health outcomes, which could increase the risk of product liability lawsuits. Furthermore, if physicians and other operators are not sufficiently trained in the use of our Deep TMS systems, they may misuse or ineffectively use our system, which may result in unsatisfactory patient outcomes. We could become the subject of product liability lawsuits alleging that component failures, malfunctions, manufacturing flaws, design defects or inadequate disclosure of product-related risks or product-related information resulted in an unsafe condition or injury to

 

Regardless of the merit or eventual outcome, product liability claims may result in:

 

decreased demand for Deep TMS;

 

injury to our reputation and brand;

 

significant litigation costs;

 

substantial monetary awards to or costly settlements with patients;

 

product recalls;

 

material defense costs;

 

loss of revenues;

 

the inability to commercialize new indications, enhancements or features; and

 

diversion of management attention from pursuing our business strategy.

 

Our existing product liability insurance coverage may be inadequate to protect us from any liabilities we might incur. If a product liability claim or series of claims is brought against us for uninsured liabilities or in excess of our insurance coverage, our business could suffer. Any product liability claim brought against us, with or without merit, could result in the increase of our product liability insurance rates or the inability to secure coverage in the future. In addition, a recall of some of our products, whether or not related to a product liability claim, could result in significant costs and loss of customers.

 

Our insurance policies protect us only from some business risks, which will leave us exposed to significant uninsured liabilities.

 

We do not carry insurance for all categories of risk that our business may encounter. Some of the policies we currently maintain include liability, public liability, employers liability, property, third party liability, umbrella, workers’ compensation, products and clinical trial liability and directors’ and officers’ insurance. We do not know, however, if these policies will provide us with adequate levels of coverage. Any significant uninsured liability may require us to pay substantial amounts, which would adversely affect our cash position and results of operations.

 

We bear the risk of warranty claims on our products.

 

We bear the risk of warranty claims on the products we supply, generally for the entire contract term for systems which are leased either via the fixed lease or risk share models, and generally for one year for Deep TMS systems we sell to customers. There can be no assurance that we will have sufficient funds, devices, components and/or personnel to cover future warranty claims. We may not be successful in claiming recovery of relevant components from our suppliers or vendors in the event of a successful warranty claim against us by a customer or that any recovery from such vendor or supplier would be adequate. In addition, warranty claims brought by our customers related to third-party components may arise after our ability to bring corresponding warranty claims against such suppliers expires, which could result in costs to us.

 

12

 

 

We could be negatively impacted by violations of applicable anti-corruption laws or violations of our internal policies designed to ensure ethical business practices.

 

We operate in a number of countries throughout the world, and we may operate in countries that may not have as strong a commitment to anti-corruption and ethical behavior that is required by U.S. laws or by our corporate policies. We are subject to the risk that we, our U.S. employees or any future employees or consultants located in other jurisdictions or any third parties such as our distributors that we engage to do work on our behalf in foreign countries may take action determined to be in violation of anti-corruption laws in any jurisdiction in which we conduct business, including the FCPA. The FCPA generally prohibits covered entities and their intermediaries from engaging in bribery or making other prohibited payments, offers or promises to foreign officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business or other advantages. In addition, the FCPA imposes recordkeeping and internal controls requirements on publicly traded corporations and their foreign affiliates, which are intended to, among other things, prevent the diversion of corporate funds to the payment of bribes and other improper payments, and to prevent the establishment of “off books” slush funds from which such improper payments can be made.

 

We will face significant risks if we fail to comply with the FCPA and other laws that prohibit improper payments, offers or promises of payment to foreign governments and their officials and political parties by us and other business entities for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business or other advantages. In many foreign countries, particularly in countries with developing economies, it may be a local custom that businesses operating in such countries engage in business practices that are prohibited by the FCPA or other laws and regulations. We have implemented or are in the process of implementing company policies relating to compliance with the FCPA and similar laws. However, such policies may not be effective at preventing all potential FCPA or other violations. Although our agreements with our international distributors state our expectations for our distributors’ compliance with U.S. laws, including the FCPA, and provide us with various remedies upon any non-compliance, including the ability to terminate the agreement, our distributors may not comply with U.S. laws, including the FCPA.

 

Any violation of the FCPA or any similar anti-corruption law or regulation could result in substantial fines, sanctions, civil and/or criminal penalties and curtailment of operations in certain jurisdictions and might harm our business, financial condition or results of operations.

 

Our operations could be affected by the outbreak of the Coronavirus.

 

The recent outbreak of the Coronavirus has led governments and authorities around the globe, to take various precautionary measures in order to limit the spread of the Coronavirus, including government-imposed quarantines and other public health safety measures, which could have an adverse effect on the global markets and its economy, including on the availability and pricing of materials, manufacturing and delivery efforts, sales to existing and potential customers and leads, collections from accounts and other aspects of the global economy. Therefore, the Coronavirus could disrupt production and cause delays in the supply and delivery of products used in our operations, may further divert the attention and efforts of the medical community to coping with the Coronavirus, impact our ability to recruit subjects for ongoing and planned clinical trials  and disrupt the marketplace in which we operate and may have a material adverse effects on our operations, sales, revenues, collection from accounts and ability to raise funds. In particular, certain of our third-party suppliers may currently source certain components and materials of our Deep TMS systems from Asia and other affected countries, and the continued outbreak and spreading of the coronavirus may adversely impact our third-party suppliers’ development, manufacture, and supply of our Deep TMS systems. In addition, treatment sessions conducted with our Deep TMS system, which are generally scheduled or non-emergency procedures, may be postponed as hospitals and healthcare centers shift resources to patients affected by the coronavirus. The extent to which the coronavirus impacts our results will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including new information which may emerge concerning the severity of the coronavirus and the actions to contain the coronavirus or treat its impact, among others. Moreover, the coronavirus outbreak has begun to have indeterminable adverse effects on general commercial activity and the world economy, and our business and results of operations could be adversely affected to the extent that this coronavirus or any other epidemic harms the global economy generally.

 

Performance issues, service interruptions or price increases by our shipping carriers could adversely affect our business and harm our reputation and ability to provide our services on a timely basis.

 

Expedited, reliable shipping is essential to our operations. We rely heavily on providers of transport services for reliable and secure point-to-point transport of our products to our customers and for tracking of these shipments. Should a carrier encounter delivery performance issues such as loss, damage or destruction of any systems, it would be costly to replace such systems in a timely manner and such occurrences may damage our reputation and lead to decreased demand for our products and increased cost and expense to our business. In addition, any significant increase in shipping rates could adversely affect our operating margins and results of operations. Similarly, strikes, severe weather, natural disasters or other service interruptions affecting delivery services we use would adversely affect our ability to process orders for our products on a timely basis.

 

Our operations are vulnerable to interruption or loss due to natural or other disasters, power loss, strikes and other events beyond our control.

 

A major earthquake, fire or other disaster, such as a major flood, seasonal storms, military action or terrorist attack affecting our facilities, or those of our third-party manufacturers or suppliers, could significantly disrupt our or their operations, and delay or prevent product shipment or installation during the time required to repair, rebuild or replace our third-party manufacturers or suppliers’ damaged manufacturing facilities. These delays could be lengthy and costly. If any of our manufacturers’, suppliers’ or customers’ facilities are negatively impacted by a disaster, shipments of our products could be delayed. Additionally, customers may delay purchases of our products until operations return to normal. Even if we are able to quickly respond to a disaster, the ongoing effects of the disaster could create some uncertainty in the operations of our business. Any shortages may increase our costs for power and energy supplies or could result in blackouts, which could disrupt the operations of our affected facilities and harm our business. In addition, concerns about terrorism, the effects of a terrorist attack, political turmoil or an outbreak of epidemic diseases could have a negative effect on our operations.

 

13

 

 

If we experience significant disruptions in our information technology systems, our business may be adversely affected.

 

We depend on our information technology systems for the efficient functioning of our business accounting, data storage, compliance, purchasing and inventory management. While we will attempt to mitigate interruptions, we may experience difficulties in implementing upgrades to our information technology systems, which would impact our business operations, or experience difficulties in operating our business during the upgrade, either of which could disrupt our operations, including our ability to timely ship and track product orders, project inventory requirements, manage our supply chain and otherwise adequately service our customers. In the event we experience significant disruptions as a result of the current implementation of our information technology systems, we may be unable to repair our systems in an efficient and timely manner. Accordingly, such events may disrupt or reduce the efficiency of our entire operation and have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and cash flows.

 

We are increasingly dependent on sophisticated information technology for our infrastructure. Our information systems require an ongoing commitment of significant resources to maintain, protect and enhance existing systems. Failure to maintain or protect our information systems and data integrity effectively could have a materially adverse effect on our business.

 

We rely on the use of technology and may become subject to cyber-terrorism or other compromises and shut-downs.

 

We rely heavily on our internal computer and information technology systems. Our information technology systems may be subject to cyber-terrorism or other compromises and shut-downs, which may result in unauthorized access to our proprietary information, destruction of our data or disability, degradation or sabotage of our systems, often through the introduction of computer viruses, cyber-attacks and other means, and could originate from a variety of sources, including internal or unknown third parties. We cannot predict what effects such cyber-attacks or compromises or shut-downs may have on our business, and the consequences could be material. Cyber incidents may remain undetected for an extended period, which could exacerbate these consequences. If our information systems or other technology are compromised, it could have a material adverse effect on our business.

 

Security and privacy breaches may expose us to liability and harm our reputation and business.

 

As part of our business we may receive and process information about our customers, partners and, potentially, their patients, including protected health information (PHI), and we may configure our devices to store or contract with third parties to store our customers’ data, including PHI. PHI, a subset of “individually identifiable information,” is defined under the federal level by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), as amended by the Health Information and Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009 (HITECH), including applicable implementing regulations. HIPAA, along with various analogous laws at the state level, governs the protection and confidentiality of PHI and other sensitive information, as applicable (as more fully described below). To the extent we, or third parties we contract with, store or transfer PHI, we may be required to safeguard PHI in accordance with HIPAA. Furthermore, to the extent we qualify as a business associate under HIPAA, we may be directly subject to HIPAA’s Privacy Rule.

 

While we implemented security measures relating to our operations, generally, those measures may not prevent security breaches that could harm our business or expose us to liability under HIPAA and/or applicable state privacy laws. Advances in computer capabilities, inadequate technology or facility security measures or other factors may result in a compromise or breach of our systems and any data we store and process. Our security measures may be breached as a result of actions by third parties or employee error or malfeasance, among many other possibilities. A party who is able to circumvent our security measures or exploit inadequacies in our security measures, could, among other things, misappropriate proprietary information, including information about our customers and their patients, cause the loss or disclosure of some or all of this information, cause interruptions in our or our customers’ operations or expose our customers to computer viruses or other disruptions or vulnerabilities. Any compromise of our systems or the data we store or process could implicate reporting requirements, civil penalties, and other enforcement actions under applicable laws, result in a loss of confidence in the security of our software, damage our reputation, disrupt our business, lead to legal liability and adversely affect our results of operations. Moreover, a compromise of our systems could remain undetected for an extended period of time, exacerbating the impact of that compromise. Actual or perceived vulnerabilities may lead to claims against us by our customers, their patients or other third parties, including the federal and state governments. While our customer agreements typically contain provisions that seek to limit our liability, there is no assurance these provisions will be enforceable and effective under applicable law. In addition, the cost and operational consequences of implementing further data protection measures could be significant.

 

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We may seek to grow our business through acquisitions or investments in new or complementary businesses, products or technologies, through the licensing of products or technologies from third parties. The failure to manage acquisitions, investments, licenses or other strategic alliances, or the failure to integrate them with our existing business, could harm our business.

 

Our success depends in part on our ability to continually enhance and broaden our product offerings in response to changing customer demands, competitive pressures, technologies and market pressures. Accordingly, from time to time, we may consider opportunities to acquire, make investments in or license other technologies, products and businesses that may enhance our capabilities, complement our current products or expand the breadth of our markets or customer base. Potential and completed acquisitions, strategic investments, licenses and other alliances involve numerous risks, including:

 

difficulty assimilating or integrating acquired or licensed technologies, products or business operations;

 

issues maintaining uniform standards, procedures, controls and policies;

 

unanticipated costs associated with acquisitions or strategic alliances, including the assumption of unknown or contingent liabilities and the incurrence of debt or future write-offs of intangible assets or goodwill;

 

diversion of management’s attention from our core business and disruption of ongoing operations;

 

adverse effects on existing business relationships with suppliers, distributors and customers;

 

risks associated with entering new markets in which we have limited or no experience;

 

potential losses related to investments in other companies;

 

potential loss of key employees of the acquired businesses; and

 

increased legal and accounting compliance costs.

 

We do not know if we will be able to identify acquisitions or strategic relationships we deem suitable, whether we will be able to successfully complete any such transactions on favorable terms or at all or whether we will be able to successfully integrate any acquired business, product or technology into our business or retain any key personnel, suppliers or distributors.

 

Foreign acquisitions involve unique risks in addition to those mentioned above, including those related to integration of operations across different cultures, languages and legal and regulatory environments, currency risks and the particular economic, political and regulatory risks associated with specific countries.

 

To finance any acquisitions, investments or strategic alliances, we may choose to issue ADSs or other equity-linked securities as consideration, which could dilute the ownership of our shareholders. Additional funds may not be available on terms that are favorable to us, or at all. If the price of the ADSs is low or volatile, we may be unable to consummate any acquisitions, investments or strategic alliances using our shares as consideration.

 

Risks Related to Employee Matters

 

If we are not able to retain our key management, or attract and retain qualified scientific, technical and business personnel, our ability to implement our business plan may be adversely affected.

 

Our success largely depends on the skill, experience and effort of our senior management. The loss of the service of any of these persons, including Dr. David Zacut, the chairman of our board of directors, Christopher R. von Jako, our president and chief executive officer, Hadar Levy, our chief financial officer and chief operating officer and Dr. Yiftach Roth, our chief scientist, would likely result in a significant loss in the knowledge and experience that we possess and could significantly delay or prevent successful product development and other business objectives. There is intense competition from numerous medical device, pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, universities, governmental entities and other research institutions, seeking to employ qualified individuals in the technical fields in which we operate, and we may not be able to attract and retain the qualified personnel necessary for the successful development and commercialization of Deep TMS.

 

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Employment litigation and unfavorable publicity could negatively affect our future business.

 

Employees may, from time to time, bring lawsuits against us regarding injury, creating a hostile work place, discrimination, wage and hour, sexual harassment and other employment issues. In recent years there has been an increase in the number of discrimination and harassment claims generally. Coupled with the expansion of social media platforms and similar devices that allow individuals access to a broad audience, these claims have had a significant negative impact on some businesses. Companies that have faced employment or harassment related lawsuits have had to terminate management or other key personnel, and have suffered reputational harm that has negatively impacted their sales. If we were to face any employment related claims, our business could be negatively affected.

 

Under applicable employment laws, we may not be able to enforce covenants not to compete.

 

Our employment agreements generally include covenants not to compete. These agreements prohibit our employees, if they cease working for us, from competing directly with us or working for our competitors for a limited period. We may be unable to enforce these agreements under the laws of the jurisdictions in which our employees work. For example, Israeli courts have required employers seeking to enforce covenants not to compete to demonstrate that the competitive activities of a former employee will harm one of a limited number of material interests of the employer, such as the secrecy of a company’s confidential commercial information or the protection of its intellectual property. If we cannot demonstrate that such an interest will be harmed, we may be unable to prevent our competitors from benefiting from the expertise of our former employees and our competitiveness may be diminished.

 

Risks Related to Government Regulation

 

Our products and operations are subject to extensive government regulation and oversight both in the United States and abroad, and our failure to comply with applicable requirements could harm our business.

 

We are subject to extensive regulation in the United States and elsewhere, including by the FDA, FTC and their foreign counterparts. The FDA and foreign regulatory agencies regulate, among other things, with respect to medical devices: design, development and manufacturing; testing, labeling, content and language of instructions for use and storage; clinical trials; product safety; marketing, sales and distribution; premarket clearance and approval; record keeping procedures; advertising and promotion; recalls and field safety corrective actions; post-market surveillance, including reporting of deaths or serious injuries and malfunctions that, if they were to recur, could lead to death or serious injury; post-market approval studies; and product import and export.

 

The regulations to which we are subject are complex and stringently enforced. Regulatory changes could result in restrictions on our ability to carry on or expand our operations, higher than anticipated costs or lower than anticipated sales. The FDA enforces these regulatory requirements through, among other means, periodic unannounced inspections. We do not know whether we will pass any future FDA inspections. Failure to comply with applicable regulations could jeopardize our ability to sell our products and result in enforcement actions such as: warning letters; fines; injunctions; civil penalties; termination of distribution; recalls or seizures of products; delays in the introduction of products into the market; total or partial suspension of production; refusal to grant future clearances or approvals; withdrawals or suspensions of current clearances or approvals, resulting in prohibitions on sales of our products; and in the most serious cases, criminal penalties.

 

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We may not receive the necessary regulatory clearances or approvals to market our product for other proposed indications in the future, and failure to timely obtain necessary clearances or approvals for such future indications would adversely affect our ability to grow our business.

 

An element of our strategy is to continue to upgrade our Deep TMS systems, add new enhancements and features and expand clearance or approval of the Deep TMS System to include new indications. In the United States, before we can market a new medical device, or claim new or expanded indications for use or introduce a significant modification to an existing product, we must first receive either clearance under Section 510(k) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, or the FDCA, de novo classification, or premarket approval application (PMA), from the FDA, unless an exemption applies. In the 510(k) clearance process, before a device may be marketed, the FDA must determine that a proposed device is “substantially equivalent” to a legally-marketed “predicate” device, which includes a device that has been previously cleared through the 510(k) process, a device that was legally marketed prior to May 28, 1976 (pre-amendments device), a device that was originally on the U.S. market pursuant to a PMA and later down-classified, or a 510(k)-exempt device. To be “substantially equivalent,” the proposed device must have the same intended use as the predicate device, and either have the same technological characteristics as the predicate device or have different technological characteristics and not raise different questions of safety or effectiveness than the predicate device. Clinical data are sometimes required to support substantial equivalence. In the PMA process, the FDA must determine that a proposed device is safe and effective for its intended use based, in part, on extensive data, including, but not limited to, technical, pre-clinical, clinical trial, manufacturing and labeling data. The PMA process is typically required for devices that are deemed to pose the greatest risk, such as life-sustaining, life-supporting or implantable devices. However, some devices are automatically subject to the PMA pathway regardless of the level of risk they pose because they have not previously been classified into a lower risk class by the FDA. Manufacturers of these devices may request that FDA review such devices in accordance with the de novo classification procedure, which allows a manufacturer whose novel device would otherwise require a PMA prior to marketing to request down-classification of the device on the basis that the device presents low or moderate risk. If the FDA grants the de novo classification request, the applicant will then receive authorization to market the device. This device type can then be used as a predicate device for future 510(k) submissions.

 

We received marketing authorization of our MDD indication through the 510(k) clearance process and we have made changes to our system for the MDD indication through subsequent 510(k) clearances. We received marketing authorization of our OCD indication through the de novo classification process, but will be permitted to make changes to our system for the OCD indication through subsequent 510(k) clearances. Competitors may seek 510(k) clearance of a TMS device for an OCD indication and use our de novo classification as a predicate device in their submission. The process of obtaining regulatory authorization to market a medical device can be costly and time consuming, and we may not be able to successfully obtain authorizations on a timely basis, if at all.

 

The FDA can delay, limit or deny clearance or approval of a device for many reasons, including: we may be unable to demonstrate to the FDA’s satisfaction that the product or modification is substantially equivalent to the proposed predicate device or is safe and effective for its intended use; the data from our pre-clinical studies and clinical trials may be insufficient to support authorization, where required; and the manufacturing process or facilities we use may not meet applicable requirements. The FDA may also, instead of accepting a 510(k) submission, require us to submit a PMA, which is typically a much more complex, lengthy and burdensome application than a 510(k) submission. To support a PMA, the FDA would likely require that we conduct one or more clinical studies to demonstrate that the device is safe and effective. In some cases such studies may be requested for a 510(k) as well. We may not be able to meet the requirements to obtain 510(k) clearance or PMA approval (or a De Novo classification request), in which case the FDA may not grant any necessary clearances or approvals. In addition, the FDA may place significant limitations upon the intended uses of our products as a condition to a 510(k) clearance or PMA approval. Product applications can also be denied or withdrawn due to failure to comply with regulatory requirements or the occurrence of unforeseen problems following clearance or approval. Any delays or failure to obtain FDA clearance or approval of new products we develop, any limitations imposed by the FDA on new product use or the costs of obtaining FDA clearance or approvals could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

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Even if granted, a 510(k) clearance, de novo classification, or PMA imposes substantial restrictions on how our devices may be marketed or sold, and the FDA continues to place considerable restrictions on our products and operations. For example, the manufacture of medical devices must comply with the FDA’s Quality System Regulation (QSR). In addition, manufacturers must register their manufacturing facilities, list the products with the FDA, and comply with requirements relating to labeling, marketing, complaint handling, adverse event and medical device reporting, reporting of corrections and removals, and import and export restrictions. The FDA monitors compliance with the QSR and these other requirements through periodic inspections. If our facilities or those of our suppliers are found to be in violation of applicable laws and regulations, or if we or suppliers fail to take satisfactory corrective action in response to an adverse inspection, the regulatory authority could take enforcement action, including any of the following sanctions: untitled letters, warning letters, fines, injunctions, consent decrees and civil penalties; customer notifications or repair, replacement, refunds, recalls, detention or seizure of our products; operating restrictions or partial suspension or total shutdown of production; refusing or delaying requests for 510(k) marketing clearance or PMA approvals of new products or modified products; withdrawing 510(k) marketing clearances or PMA approvals that have already been granted; refusing to provide Certificates for Foreign Government; refusing to grant export approval for our products; or pursuing criminal prosecution. Any of these sanctions could impair our ability to produce or commercialize our products in a cost-effective and timely manner in order to meet our customers’ demands, and could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, results of operations and financial condition. We may also be required to bear other regulatory compliance costs or take other actions that may have a negative impact on our sales and our ability to generate profits.

 

In addition, the FDA may change its clearance and approval policies, adopt additional regulations or revise existing regulations, or take other actions, which may prevent or delay authorization of our future products under development or impact our ability to modify our currently marketed products on a timely basis. Such policy or regulatory changes could impose additional requirements upon us that could delay our ability to obtain new 510(k) clearances, increase the costs of compliance or restrict our ability to maintain our current clearances. We also cannot predict the likelihood, nature or extent of government regulation that may arise from future legislation or administrative or executive action, either in the United States or abroad. For example, certain policies of the Trump administration may impact our business and industry. Namely, the Trump administration has taken several executive actions, including the issuance of a number of Executive Orders, that could impose significant burdens on, or otherwise materially delay, the FDA’s ability to engage in routine regulatory and oversight activities such as implementing statutes through rulemaking, issuance of guidance, and review and approval of marketing applications. It is difficult to predict how these executive actions, including the Executive Orders, will be implemented, and the extent to which they will impact the FDA’s ability to exercise its regulatory authority. If these executive actions impose constraints on FDA’s ability to engage in oversight and implementation activities in the normal course, our business may be negatively impacted.

 

In order to sell our products in member countries of the EEA, or in countries that also rely on the CE Mark outside the EEA, our products must comply with the essential requirements of the EU Medical Devices Directive (Council Directive 93/42/EEC), and, by 2020 comply with the Medical Device Regulation (Regulation 2017/745). Compliance with these requirements is a prerequisite to be able to affix the CE Mark to our products, without which they cannot be sold or marketed in the EEA. To demonstrate compliance with the essential requirements we must undergo a conformity assessment procedure, which varies according to the type of medical device and its classification. Except for low-risk medical devices (Class I non-sterile, non-measuring devices), where the manufacturer can issue an EC Declaration of Conformity based on a self-assessment of the conformity of its products with the essential requirements of the EU Medical Devices Directive, a conformity assessment procedure requires the intervention of an organization accredited by a Member State of the EEA to conduct conformity assessments, or a Notified Body. Depending on the relevant conformity assessment procedure, the Notified Body would typically audit and examine the technical file and the quality system for the manufacture, design and final inspection of our devices. The Notified Body issues a certificate of conformity following successful completion of a conformity assessment procedure conducted in relation to the medical device and its manufacturer and their conformity with the essential requirements. This certificate entitles the manufacturer to affix the CE Mark to its medical devices after having prepared and signed a related EC Declaration of Conformity. If we fail to remain in compliance with applicable European laws and directives, we would be unable to continue to affix the CE Mark to our device, which would prevent us from selling them within the EEA and may have an impact on our marketing authorizations in other countries.

 

We or our distributors will also need to obtain, or retain, regulatory approval in other foreign jurisdictions in which we plan to or currently do market and sell our products, and we or they may not obtain such approvals as necessary to commercialize our products in those territories. Regulatory marketing authorizations in these foreign jurisdictions typically require device testing, conformance to classification requirements, pre-market requests to authorize commercialization, and in some cases inspections.

 

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Modifications to our Deep TMS systems may require new 510(k) clearances, de novo classification or PMA, and may require us to cease marketing or recall the modified products until authorizations are obtained.

 

Any modification to a 510(k)-cleared product that could significantly affect its safety or effectiveness, or that would constitute a major change in its intended use, design or manufacture, requires a new 510(k) clearance or de novo classification, or possibly, a PMA. Modifications to products that have been approved through the PMA process generally require premarket FDA approval. Similarly, certain modifications made to products cleared through a 510(k) or authorized through the de novo classification process may require a new 510(k) clearance. Each of the PMA, de novo classification and the 510(k) clearance processes can be expensive, lengthy and uncertain. The FDA’s 510(k) clearance process usually takes from three to 12 months, but can last longer. The process of obtaining a PMA is much more costly and uncertain than the 510(k) clearance process and generally takes from one to three years, or even longer, from the time the application is filed with the FDA. In addition, a PMA generally requires the performance of one or more clinical trials.

 

Despite the time, effort and cost, a device may not be approved or cleared by the FDA. Any delay or failure to obtain necessary regulatory authorizations could harm our business. Furthermore, even if we are granted regulatory authorizations, they may include significant limitations on the indicated uses for the device, which may limit the market for the device.

 

Any modifications to our existing products may require new 510(k) clearance; however, future modifications may be subject to the substantially more costly, time-consuming and uncertain PMA process. If the FDA requires us to go through a lengthier, more rigorous examination for future products or modifications to existing products than we had expected, product introductions or modifications could be delayed or canceled, which could cause our sales to decline.

 

The FDA requires every manufacturer to make this modification determination in the first instance, but the FDA may review any manufacturer’s decision. The FDA may not agree with our decisions regarding whether new authorizations are necessary. We have made modifications to our products in the past and have determined based on our review of the applicable FDA regulations and guidance that in certain instances new 510(k) clearances were not required. We may make modifications or add additional enhancements or features in the future that we believe do not require a new 510(k) clearance, de novo classification or a PMA. If the FDA disagrees with our determination and requires us to submit new 510(k) notifications, de novo classifications or PMAs for modifications to our previously authorized products for which we have concluded that new authorizations are unnecessary, we may be required to cease marketing or to recall the modified product until we obtain appropriate regulatory authorization, and we may be subject to significant regulatory fines or penalties. In addition, the FDA may not authorize our products for the indications that are necessary or desirable for successful commercialization or could require clinical trials to support any modifications. Any delay or failure in obtaining required regulatory authorizations would adversely affect our ability to introduce new or enhanced products in a timely manner, which in turn would harm our future growth.

 

Our products must be manufactured in accordance with federal and state regulations, and we could be forced to recall our installed systems or terminate production if we fail to comply with these regulations.

 

The methods used in, and the facilities used for, the manufacture of our products must comply with the FDA’s QSR, which is a complex regulatory scheme that covers the procedures and documentation of the design, testing, production, process controls, quality assurance, labeling, packaging, handling, storage, distribution, installation, servicing and shipping of medical devices. Furthermore, we are required to verify that our suppliers maintain facilities, procedures and operations that comply with our quality standards and applicable regulatory requirements. Compliance with the QSR is necessary to receive FDA clearance or approval to market new products and is necessary for a manufacturer to be able to continue to market cleared or approved devices in the United States. The FDA enforces the QSR through periodic announced or unannounced inspections of medical device manufacturing facilities, which may include the facilities of subcontractors. Our products are also subject to similar state regulations and various laws and regulations of foreign countries governing manufacturing. Foreign regulatory authorities also impose manufacturing quality requirements, that may differ from the FDA requirements, with which we must comply.

 

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We or our third-party suppliers may not take the necessary steps to comply with applicable regulations, which could cause delays in the delivery of our products. In addition, failure to comply with applicable FDA or foreign jurisdiction requirements or later discovery of previously unknown problems with our products or manufacturing processes could result in, among other things: warning letters or untitled letters; fines, injunctions or civil penalties; suspension or withdrawal of approvals or clearances; seizures or recalls of our products; total or partial suspension of production or distribution; administrative or judicially imposed sanctions; the FDA’s refusal to grant pending or future clearances or approvals of Deep TMS for additional indications; clinical holds; refusal to permit the import or export of our products; and criminal prosecution of us or our employees.Any of these actions could significantly and negatively impact supply of our Deep TMS systems. If any of these events occurs, our reputation could be harmed, we could be exposed to product liability claims and we could lose customers and suffer reduced revenues and increased costs.

 

If treatment guidelines for the clinical conditions we are targeting change or the standard of care evolves, we may need to redesign and seek new marketing authorization from the FDA for one or more of our products.

 

 If treatment guidelines for the clinical conditions we are targeting or the standard of care for such conditions evolves, we may need to redesign our Deep TMS systems and seek new marketing authorizations from the FDA. Our existing 510(k) and de novo clearances from the FDA are based on current treatment guidelines. Additionally, if treatment guidelines change so that different treatments become desirable, the clinical utility of one or more of our indications could be diminished and our business could suffer.

 

The misuse or off-label use of Deep TMS may harm our reputation in the marketplace, result in injuries that lead to product liability suits or result in costly investigations, fines or sanctions by regulatory bodies, particularly if we are deemed to have engaged in the promotion of these uses, any of which could be costly to our business.

 

Deep TMS system has been authorized for marketing by the FDA only for MDD and OCD indications. We train our commercial organization to not promote our products for uses outside of the FDA-authorized indications for use, known as “off-label uses.” However, we cannot guarantee that all of our employees, representatives, and agents will abide by our marketing policies. If the FDA determines that our promotional materials, training or other marketing activities constitute promotion of an off-label or unapproved use, it could request that we modify our training or promotional materials or subject us to regulatory or enforcement actions, including the issuance or imposition of an untitled letter, a warning letter, injunction, seizure, civil fine or criminal penalties. It is also possible that other federal, state or foreign enforcement authorities might take action under other regulatory authority, such as laws prohibiting false claims for reimbursement.

 

Moreover, even if we, and all our employees, contractors, and agents, market our products in compliance with applicable FDA regulations, such regulations do not apply to the practice of medicine, and we cannot prevent a physician from prescribing and/or using our products off-label when, in the physician’s independent professional medical judgment, he or she deems it appropriate. Similarly, we cannot prevent patients from using our products off-label. There may be increased risk of injury to patients if physicians attempt to prescribe, or patients attempt to use, Deep TMS off-label. Furthermore, the use of Deep TMS for MDD or OCD other than as stated on product labeling, or for indications other than those authorized by the FDA, may not be effective to treat such conditions, which could harm our reputation in the marketplace among physicians and patients. There are similar risks if Deep TMS is used off-label with respect to non-U.S. regulatory approvals.

 

Deep TMS may cause or contribute to adverse medical events that we are required to report to the FDA, and if we fail to do so, we would be subject to sanctions that could harm our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations. The discovery of serious safety issues with our products, or a recall of our products either voluntarily or at the direction of the FDA or another governmental authority, could have a negative impact on us.

 

We are subject to the FDA’s medical device reporting regulations and similar foreign regulations, which require us to report to the FDA when we receive or become aware of information that reasonably suggests that one or more of our products may have caused or contributed to a death or serious injury or malfunctioned in a way that, if the malfunction were to recur, it could cause or contribute to a death or serious injury. The timing of our obligation to report is triggered by the date we become aware of the adverse event as well as the nature of the event. We may fail to report adverse events of which we become aware within the prescribed timeframe. We may also fail to recognize that we have become aware of a reportable adverse event, especially if it is not reported to us as an adverse event or if it is an adverse event that is unexpected or removed in time from the use of the product. If we fail to comply with our reporting obligations, the FDA could take action, including warning letters, untitled letters, administrative actions, criminal prosecution, imposition of civil monetary penalties, revocation of our device clearance, seizure of our products or delay in clearance of future products.

 

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The FDA and foreign regulatory bodies have the authority to require, and in the United States companies are expected to voluntarily, the recall of commercialized products in the event of material deficiencies or defects in design or manufacture of a product or in the event that a product poses an unacceptable risk to health. An FDA recall, whether mandatory or voluntary, may be based on a finding that there is reasonable probability that the device could cause serious injury or death. A government mandated or voluntary recall by us could occur as a result of an unacceptable risk to health, component failures, malfunctions, manufacturing defects, labeling or design deficiencies, packaging defects or other deficiencies or failures to comply with applicable regulations. Product defects or other errors may occur in the future. If we initiate a correction or removal for one of our devices to reduce a risk to health posed by the device, we would be required to submit a publicly available Correction and Removal report to the FDA and, in many cases, similar reports to other regulatory agencies. This report could be classified by the FDA as a device recall which could lead to increased scrutiny by the FDA, other international regulatory agencies and our customers regarding the quality and safety of our devices. Furthermore, the submission of these reports could be used by competitors against us in competitive situations and cause customers to delay purchase decisions or cancel orders and would harm our reputation.

 

Depending on the corrective action we take to redress a product’s deficiencies or defects, the FDA may require, or we may decide, that we will need to obtain new authorization for the device before we may market or distribute the corrected device. Seeking such authorization may delay our ability to replace the recalled devices in a timely manner. Moreover, if we do not adequately address problems associated with our devices, we may face additional regulatory enforcement action, including FDA warning letters, product seizure, injunctions, administrative penalties or civil or criminal fines.

 

Companies are required to maintain certain records of corrective actions, even if they are not reportable to the FDA. We may initiate voluntary corrective actions for our products in the future that we determine do not require notification to the FDA. If the FDA disagrees with our determinations, it could require us to report those actions as recalls and we may be subject to enforcement action. A future recall announcement could harm our reputation with customers, potentially lead to product liability claims against us and negatively affect our sales.

 

Any adverse event involving Deep TMS systems could result in voluntary corrective actions, such as recalls or customer notifications, or agency action, such as inspection, mandatory recall or other enforcement action. Any corrective action, whether voluntary or involuntary, as well as exposing us to private litigation, would require the dedication of our time and capital, distract management from operating our business and may harm our reputation and financial results.

 

If we or our distributors do not obtain and maintain international regulatory registrations or approvals for Deep TMS, we will be unable to market and sell our products outside of the United States.

 

Sales of our Deep TMS systems outside of the United States are subject to foreign regulatory requirements that vary widely from country to country. While the regulations of some countries may not impose barriers to marketing and selling Deep TMS systems or only require notification, others require that we or our distributors obtain the approval of a specified regulatory body. Complying with foreign regulatory requirements, including obtaining registrations or approvals, can be expensive and time-consuming, and we or our distributors may not receive regulatory approvals in each country in which we plan to market Deep TMS or we may be unable to do so on a timely basis. The time required to obtain registrations or approvals, if required by other countries, may be longer than that required for FDA authorization, and requirements for such registrations, clearances or approvals may significantly differ from FDA requirements. If we modify our Deep TMS systems, we or our distributors may need to apply for additional regulatory approvals before we are permitted to sell the modified product. In addition, we may not continue to meet the quality and safety standards required to maintain the authorizations that we or our distributors have received. If we or our distributors are unable to maintain our authorizations in a particular country, we will no longer be able to sell the applicable product in that country.

 

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Regulatory authorization by the FDA and/or the permission to affix the CE Mark does not ensure clearance or approval by regulatory authorities in other jurisdictions, and clearance or approval by one or more foreign regulatory authorities does not ensure clearance or approval by the FDA, the EU and/or the regulatory authorities in other foreign countries. However, a failure or delay in obtaining regulatory clearance or approval in one country may have a negative effect on the regulatory process in others.

 

We are subject to certain federal, state and foreign fraud and abuse laws, health information privacy and security laws and transparency laws, which, if violated, could subject us to substantial penalties. Additionally, any challenge to or investigation into our practices under these laws could cause adverse publicity and be costly to respond to, and thus could harm our business.

 

There are numerous U.S. federal and state, as well as foreign, laws pertaining to healthcare fraud and abuse, including anti-kickback, false claims and physician transparency laws. Efforts to ensure that our business arrangements with third parties will comply with applicable healthcare laws and regulations involve substantial costs. Our business practices and relationships with providers and patients are subject to scrutiny under these laws. We may also be subject to patient information privacy and security regulation by both the federal government and the states and foreign jurisdictions in which we conduct our business. The healthcare laws and regulations that may affect our ability to operate include:

 

the federal healthcare Anti-Kickback Statute, which prohibits, among other things, persons and entities from knowingly and willfully soliciting, offering, receiving or providing remuneration, directly or indirectly, in cash or in kind, to induce or reward either the referral of an individual for, or the purchase, lease, order, or arrange for or recommend a good or service, for which payment may be made, in whole or in part, under federal healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid. The term “remuneration” has been broadly interpreted to include anything of value. The government can establish a violation of the Anti-Kickback Statute without proving that a person or entity had actual knowledge of the law or a specific intent to violate. Moreover, the government may assert that a claim including items or services resulting from a violation of the federal healthcare Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the federal civil False Claims Act. Although there are a number of statutory exceptions and regulatory safe harbors to the federal healthcare Anti-Kickback Statute protecting certain common business arrangements and activities from prosecution or regulatory sanctions, the exceptions and safe harbors are drawn narrowly. Practices that involve remuneration to those who prescribe, purchase, or recommend medical device products, including discounts, or engaging individuals as speakers, consultants, or advisors, may be subject to scrutiny if they do not fit squarely within an exception or safe harbor. Our practices may not in all cases meet all of the criteria for safe harbor protection from anti-kickback liability. Moreover, there are no safe harbors for many common practices, such as reimbursement support programs, educational or research grants, or charitable donations;

 

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the federal civil False Claims Act, which prohibits, among other things, individuals or entities from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, false or fraudulent claims for payment of federal government funds, and knowingly making, using or causing to be made or used a false record or statement material to a false or fraudulent claim to avoid, decrease or conceal an obligation to pay money to the federal government. Private individuals, commonly known as “whistleblowers,” can bring civil False Claims Act qui tam actions, on behalf of the government and such individuals and may share in amounts paid by the entity to the government in recovery or settlement. False Claims Act liability is potentially significant in the healthcare industry because the statute provides for treble damages and mandatory penalties of $11,181 to $22,363 per false or fraudulent claim or statement. The government may assert that a claim including items or services resulting from a violation of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim under the federal civil False Claims Act. Many pharmaceutical and medical device manufacturers have been investigated and have reached substantial settlements under the federal civil False Claims Act in connection with alleged off-label promotion of their products and allegedly providing free products to customers with the expectation that the customers would bill federal health care programs for the product. In addition, manufacturers can be held liable under the federal civil False Claims Act even when they do not submit claims directly to government payers if they are deemed to “cause” the submission of false or fraudulent claims. There are also criminal penalties, including imprisonment and criminal fines, for making or presenting false, fictitious or fraudulent claims to the federal government;
   
HIPAA, which created additional federal criminal statutes that prohibit, among other things, knowingly and willfully executing or attempting to execute a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program, including private third-party payers, knowingly and willfully embezzling or stealing from a healthcare benefit program, willfully obstructing a criminal investigation of a healthcare offense, and knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up a material fact or making any materially false, fictitious or fraudulent statements or representations, or making or using any false writing or document knowing the same to contain any materially false, fictitious or fraudulent statement or entry in connection with the delivery of, or payment for, healthcare benefits, items or services. Similar to the federal healthcare Anti-Kickback Statute, a person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it to have committed a violation;
   
the federal Physician Payments Sunshine Act under PPACA which requires certain manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologics and medical supplies for which payment is available under Medicare, Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program (with certain exceptions) to report annually to the United States Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, information related to payments and other transfers of value to physicians (defined to include doctors, dentists, optometrists, podiatrists and chiropractors) and teaching hospitals, and applicable manufacturers and group purchasing organizations, as well as ownership and investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members. Beginning in 2022, applicable manufacturers also will be required to report information regarding payments and transfers of value provided to physician assistants, nurse practitioners, clinical nurse specialists, certified nurse anesthetists, and certified nurse-midwives;
   
HIPAA, as amended by HITECH, and their respective implementing regulations, which imposes privacy, security and breach reporting obligations with respect to PHI, upon entities subject to the law, such as health plans, healthcare clearinghouses and certain healthcare providers, and their respective business associates that perform services on their behalf that involve PHI. HITECH also created new tiers of civil monetary penalties, amended HIPAA to make HIPAA compliance as well as civil and criminal penalties directly applicable to business associates, and gave state attorneys general new authority to file civil actions for damages or injunctions in federal courts to enforce the HIPAA laws and seek attorneys’ fees and costs associated with pursuing federal civil actions; and

 

analogous state and foreign law equivalents of each of the above federal laws, such as anti-kickback and false claims laws which may apply to items or services reimbursed by any third-party payer, including commercial insurers or patients; state laws that require device companies to comply with the industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the applicable compliance guidance promulgated by the federal government or otherwise restrict payments that may be made to healthcare providers and other potential referral sources; state and local laws that require the licensure of sales representatives; state laws that require device manufacturers to report information related to payments and other transfers of value to physicians and other healthcare providers or marketing expenditures and pricing information; data privacy and security laws and regulations in foreign jurisdictions that may be more stringent than those in the United States (such as the EU, which adopted the General Data Protection Regulation, which became effective in May 2018); state laws governing the privacy and security of health information in certain circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and may not have the same effect, thus complicating compliance efforts; and state laws related to insurance fraud in the case of claims involving private insurers.

 

These laws and regulations, among other things, constrain our business, marketing and other promotional activities by limiting the kinds of financial arrangements, including sales programs, we may have with physicians or other potential purchasers of our products. We have also entered into consulting agreements with physicians, which are subject to these laws. Further, while we do not submit claims and our customers will make the ultimate decision on how to submit claims, we may provide reimbursement guidance and support regarding our products. Due to the breadth of these laws, the narrowness of statutory exceptions and regulatory safe harbors available, and the range of interpretations to which they are subject, it is possible that some of our current or future practices might be challenged under one or more of these laws.

 

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To enforce compliance with healthcare regulatory laws, certain enforcement bodies have recently increased their scrutiny of interactions between healthcare companies and healthcare providers, which has led to a number of investigations, prosecutions, convictions and settlements in the healthcare industry. For example, U.S. federal and state regulatory and enforcement agencies continue to actively investigate violations of healthcare laws and regulations, including pursuing novel theories of liability under these laws. These government agencies recently have increased regulatory scrutiny and enforcement activity with respect to manufacturer reimbursement support activities and patient support programs, including bringing criminal charges or civil enforcement actions under the federal healthcare Anti-Kickback statute, federal civil False Claims Act, the health care fraud statute, and HIPAA privacy provisions. Responding to investigations can be time and resource consuming and can divert management’s attention from the business. Any such investigation or settlement could increase our costs or otherwise have an adverse effect on our business. Even an unsuccessful challenge or investigation into our practices could cause adverse publicity, and be costly to respond to.

 

If our operations are found to be in violation of any of the healthcare laws or regulations described above or any other healthcare regulations that apply to us, we may be subject to administrative, civil and criminal penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, substantial monetary penalties, exclusion from participation in government healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, imprisonment, additional reporting obligations and oversight if we become subject to a corporate integrity agreement or other agreement to resolve allegations of non-compliance with these laws, reputational harm, and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations.

 

Healthcare policy changes, including recently enacted legislation reforming the U.S. healthcare system, could harm our cash flows, financial condition and results of operations.

 

From time to time, legislation is drafted and introduced in Congress that could significantly change the statutory provisions governing the regulation of medical devices. In addition, FDA regulations and guidance are often revised or reinterpreted by the FDA in ways that may significantly affect our business and our products. Any new statutes, regulations, revisions, or reinterpretations of existing regulations may impose additional costs, lengthen review times of any future products, or make it more difficult to manufacture, market or distribute our products. We cannot determine what effect changes in regulations, statutes, legal interpretation or policies, when and if promulgated, enacted or adopted may have on our business in the future.

 

For example, in March 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) was enacted in the United States, which made a number of substantial changes in the way healthcare is financed by both governmental and private insurers. Among other ways in which it may impact our business, the PPACA:

 

establishes a new Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute to oversee and identify priorities in comparative clinical effectiveness research in an effort to coordinate and develop such research;

 

implements payment system reforms including a national pilot program on payment bundling to encourage hospitals, physicians and other providers to improve the coordination, quality and efficiency of certain healthcare services through bundled payment models; and

 

expands the eligibility criteria for Medicaid programs.

 

Some of the provisions of the PPACA have yet to be implemented, and there have been judicial and Congressional challenges to modify, limit, or repeal certain aspects of the PPACA since its enactment and have continued to evolve. Since taking office, President Trump has continued to support the repeal of all or portions of the PPACA, and in January 2017, he signed Executive Orders designed to delay the implementation of certain provisions of the PPACA or otherwise circumvent some of the requirements for health insurance mandated by the PPACA to the maximum extent permitted by law. Due to such efforts, certain elements of the PPACA have been invalidated or suspended, which has, in turn, led to additional challenges against the law as a whole. For example, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 included a provision repealing, effective January 1, 2019, the tax-based shared responsibility payment imposed by the PPACA on certain individuals who fail to maintain qualifying health coverage for all or part of a year that is commonly referred to as the “individual mandate. As a result, there is significant uncertainty regarding future healthcare reform and its impact on our operations. in December 2018, a district court in Texas held that the individual mandate is unconstitutional and that the rest of the PPACA is, therefore, invalid. On appeal, the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed the holding on the individual mandate but remanded the case back to the lower court to reassess whether and how such holding affects the validity of the rest of the PPACA. Substantial uncertainty remains as to the future of the PPACA after the U.S. Supreme Court declined to expedite its review of the Fifth Circuit’s holding on January 21, 2020. It is, thus, unlikely that these issues will be resolved before the next presidential election in November 2020. The current administration may seek to pass additional reform measures before the upcoming election. We cannot predict the outcome of the election, nor can we predict the healthcare-reform-related initiatives that the newly elected (or re-elected, as applicable) administration will put forth thereafter. There is no way to know whether, and to what extent, if any, the PPACA will remain in-effect in the future, and it is unclear how judicial decisions, subsequent appeals, election-related measures, or other efforts to repeal and replace or, possibly, to restore the PPACA will impact the U.S. healthcare industry or our business.

 

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We cannot predict the impact that such actions against the PPACA will have on our business, and there is uncertainty as to what healthcare programs and regulations may be implemented or changed at the federal and/or state level in the United States, or the effect of any future legislation or regulation. However, it is possible that such initiatives could have an adverse effect on our ability to obtain approval and/or successfully commercialize products in the United States in the future. For example, any changes that reduce, or impede the ability to obtain, reimbursement for the type of products we intend to commercialize in the United States (or our products more specifically, if approved) or reduce medical procedure volumes could adversely affect our business plan to introduce our products in the United States.

 

Our employees, consultants, distributors, agents and other commercial partners may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, including non-compliance with regulatory standards and requirements.

 

We are exposed to the risk that our employees, consultants, distributors, agents and other commercial partners may engage in inappropriate, fraudulent or illegal activity. Misconduct by these parties could include intentional, reckless or negligent conduct or other unauthorized activities that violate the regulations of the FDA and other U.S. healthcare regulators, as well as non-U.S. regulators, including by violating laws requiring the reporting of true, complete and accurate information to such regulators, manufacturing standards, healthcare fraud and abuse laws and regulations in the United States and abroad or laws that require the true, complete and accurate reporting of financial information or data. In particular, sales, marketing and business arrangements in the healthcare industry, including the sale of medical devices, are subject to extensive laws and regulations intended to prevent fraud, misconduct, kickbacks, self-dealing and other abusive practices. These laws and regulations may restrict or prohibit a wide range of pricing, discounting, marketing and promotion, sales commission, customer incentive programs and other business arrangements. It is not always possible to identify and deter misconduct by our employees, distributors, agents and other third parties, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses or in protecting us from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to comply with these laws or regulations. Efforts to ensure that the activities of these parties will comply with applicable healthcare laws and regulations involve substantial costs. These risks may be more pronounced, and we may find that the processes and policies we have implemented are not effective at preventing misconduct. If any actions are instituted against us and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could result in the imposition of significant fines or other sanctions, including the imposition of civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, monetary fines, individual imprisonment, disgorgement, possible exclusion from participation in government healthcare programs, additional reporting obligations and oversight if we becomes subject to a corporate integrity agreement or other agreement to resolve allegations of non-compliance with these laws, contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits and future earnings and the curtailment of our operations. Whether or not we are successful in defending against such actions or investigations, we could incur substantial costs, including legal fees, and divert the attention of management in defending ourselves against any of these claims or investigations.

 

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

 

We depend on our intellectual property, and our future success is dependent on our ability to protect our intellectual property and not infringe on the rights of others.

 

Our success depends, in part, on our ability to obtain sufficient patent protection and/or licensing rights for Deep TMS (including, but not limited to, the various H-Coils utilized in our devices and various product features/capabilities), maintain the confidentiality of our trade secrets and know how, operate without infringing on the proprietary rights of others and prevent others from infringing our proprietary rights. Our success also depends, in part, on the ability of the U.S. Public Health Service, or PHS, which refers collectively to the National Institutes of Health, or NIH, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the FDA, as agencies of the PHS within the United States Department of Health and Human Services, or the DHHS, and Yeda Research and Development Company Ltd., or Yeda, the technology transfer arm of the Weizmann Institute of Science, from whom we license essential intellectual property upon which Deep TMS technology is based, to obtain sufficient patent protection for such intellectual property, maintain the confidentiality of related trade secrets and know how, operate without infringing on the proprietary rights of others and prevent others from infringing such intellectual property.

 

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We and our licensors try to protect our proprietary position by, among other things, filing U.S., European, and other patent applications related to Deep TMS, as well as inventions and improvements that may be important to the continuing development of Deep TMS. While we generally apply for patents in those countries where we intend to make, have made, use, or sell patented products, we may not accurately predict all of the countries where patent protection will ultimately be desirable. If we fail to timely file a patent application in any such country, we may be precluded from doing so at a later date. In addition, we cannot assure you that:

 

any of our future processes or product indications will be patentable;

 

our processes or product indications will not infringe upon the patents of third parties; or

 

we will have the resources to defend against charges of patent infringement or other violation or misappropriation of intellectual property by third parties or to protect our own intellectual property rights against infringement, misappropriation or violation by third parties.

 

Because the patent position of medical device companies involves complex legal and factual questions, we cannot predict the validity and enforceability of patents with certainty. Changes in either the patent laws or in interpretations of patent laws may diminish the value of our intellectual property. Accordingly, we cannot predict the breadth of claims that may be allowable or enforceable in our patents (including patents owned by or licensed to us). Our issued patents may not provide us with any competitive advantages, may be held invalid or unenforceable as a result of legal challenges by third parties or could be circumvented. Our competitors may also independently develop formulations, processes and technologies or products similar to ours or design around or otherwise circumvent patents issued to, or licensed by, us. Thus, any patents that we own or license from others may not provide any protection against competitors. Our pending patent applications, those we may file in the future or those we may license from third parties may not result in patents being issued. If these patents are issued, they may not be of sufficient scope to provide us with meaningful protection. The degree of future protection to be afforded by our proprietary rights is uncertain because legal means afford relatively limited protection and may not adequately protect our rights or permit us to gain or keep our competitive advantage.

 

Patent rights are territorial; thus, the patent protection we do have will only extend to those countries in which we have issued patents. Even so, the laws of certain countries do not protect our intellectual property rights to the same extent as do the laws of the United States and the European Union. Therefore, we cannot assure you that the patents issued, if any, as a result of our foreign patent applications will have the same scope of coverage as our U.S. patents. Competitors may successfully challenge our patents, produce similar products that do not infringe our patents, or produce products in countries where we have not applied for patent protection or that do not respect our patents. Furthermore, it is not possible to know the scope of claims that will be allowed in published applications and it is also not possible to know which claims of granted patents, if any, will be deemed enforceable in a court of law.

 

After the completion of development and registration of our patents, third parties may still act to manufacture and/or market products that infringe our patent protected rights, and we may not have adequate resources to enforce our patents. Any such manufacturing and/or marketing of products that infringe our patent rights may significantly harm our business, results of operations and prospects.

 

In addition, due to the extensive time needed to develop, test and obtain regulatory approval for new indications of Deep TMS, any patents that protect these indications may expire early during the commercialization process. This may reduce or eliminate any market advantages that such patents may give us. Following patent expiration, we may face increased competition through the entry of competing products into the market and a subsequent decline in market share and profits.

 

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However, our business interests may change or our licensees may disagree with the scope of our license grants. In such cases, such licensing arrangements may result in the development, manufacturing, marketing and sale by our licensees of products substantially similar to our products, causing us to face increased competition, which could reduce our market share and significantly harm our business, results of operations and prospects.

 

The lives of our patents may not be sufficient to effectively protect our products and business.

 

Patents have a limited lifespan. In the United States, the natural expiration of a patent is generally 20 years after its first effective non-provisional filing date. Although various extensions may be available, the life of a patent, and the protection it affords, is limited. Even if patents covering our technologies, products, or product candidates are obtained, once the patent life has expired, we may be open to competition. Patents covering some of our core technology have expired or will expire within the next five years. In particular, the earliest of our U.S. patents on Deep TMS is set to expire in 2024. See “Business—Intellectual Property.” In addition, although upon issuance in the United States a patent’s life can be increased based on certain delays caused by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), this increase can be reduced or eliminated based on certain delays caused by the patent applicant during patent prosecution. If we do not have sufficient patent life to protect our technologies, products, and product candidates, our business and results of operations will be adversely affected.

 

Our right to the essential intellectual property upon which the Deep TMS technology is based results from in-license agreements with government agencies and research institutions, the termination of which would prevent us from commercializing Deep TMS.

 

We have in-licensing agreements with the PHS and Yeda. There is no assurance that the in-licenses or related rights on which we base our technology will not be terminated or expire due to a material breach of the underlying agreements or some other failure to meet the terms of agreement, such as a failure on our part to make certain progress milestone payments set forth in the terms of the licenses or to comply with manufacturing obligations under these agreements. There is no assurance that we will be able to renew or renegotiate our license agreements on acceptable terms if and when such agreements terminate. We cannot guarantee that any in-license is enforceable or will not be terminated in the future. The termination of any in-license or our inability to enforce our rights under any in-license would materially and adversely affect our ability to commercialize our Deep TMS.

 

Our license agreements for our critical patents and related intellectual property impose significant monetary obligations and other requirements that may adversely affect our ability to successfully execute our business plan.

 

We depend upon license agreements with the PHS and Yeda for our intellectual property rights to Deep TMS technology. Deep TMS was developed by our founders, among others, prior to our founding over the course of their work for the PHS. The key family of patents and patent applications upon which the unique coil of Deep TMS technology is based is owned by the DHHS (based on an assignment of the related rights from the PHS) and is exclusively in-licensed to us under a license agreement with the PHS. In addition, a second family of patent applications covering additional functions of Deep TMS (including the multichannel stimulator that we are developing for use in a more advanced version of our system), which is jointly owned by us with the NIH and Yeda, is also licensed to us under the PHS license agreement and our license agreement with Yeda.

 

Our license agreement with Yeda provides for in-licensed rights to both a second family of patent applications and a third family of patent applications that covers additional characteristics of Deep TMS (including several Deep TMS coils and stimulators and methods of use), and we have commissioned research at the Weizmann Institute related to the Deep TMS under this agreement.

 

These agreements provide us an exclusive (subject to certain standard exceptions and such as described below), worldwide license, with a right to sublicense, subject to the approval of PHS and Yeda, respectively, for the life of the relevant patents (in the case of Yeda, on a per country basis or, until the 15-year anniversary of the first commercial sale (per country) of a product developed on the basis of the agreement, if later) for the development, creation, use, import, offer and sale of any product or treatment that relates to Deep TMS technology and that is developed on the basis of such patents or (in the case of the agreement with Yeda) such research. These agreements require us, as a condition to the maintenance of our license and other rights, to make milestone and royalty payments and satisfy certain performance obligations, including with respect to manufacturing. If we were to receive a notice of non-compliance under any of these agreements, we would need to either obtain appropriate waivers and/or cure such non-compliance, which may require us to modify our operations.

 

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All of the above-described obligations impose significant financial and logistical burdens upon our ability to carry out our business plan. Furthermore, if we do not meet such obligations in a timely manner, we could lose the rights to our proprietary technology, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

The key patents that underlie our Deep TMS technology are subject to the U.S. government’s royalty free usage rights on a worldwide basis for any discovery based on such patents, which may have unexpected, adverse consequences upon the market for our product.

 

Under our PHS license agreement, the U.S. government possesses an irrevocable, nonexclusive, nontransferable royalty-free license for the practice of inventions based on the inventions upon which our Deep TMS technology is based, for the benefit of the U.S. government, foreign governments, or international organizations under any existing or future treaty or agreement applicable to the U.S. government at such time. Furthermore, the PHS may grant, or may cause us to grant, nonexclusive research licenses, for the purpose of encouraging basic research at academic or corporate facilities (but, in the case of any license to a commercial entity, subject to our right to object if we believe that such license would adversely impact the exclusivity of our rights under the agreement). The PHS may also require us to grant sublicenses to responsible applicants if the public health and safety so require, subject to our right to demonstrate that any such sublicense will not materially increase the availability to the public of our licensed rights or that such public health and safety requirements may be otherwise met without any such sublicense.

 

No material limits have been placed on the license held by the U.S. government for its own (or for its treaty partners’ or agreement counter-parties’) benefit, and it is possible that the U.S. government, a foreign government or an international organization could even commercialize a product on the basis of this license and the related technology. We cannot provide assurance that these rights will not be exploited in a manner that infringes upon our exclusive license to the PHS-owned patents, that does not develop or advance products that compete with our own, or that does not otherwise adversely impact our business. Because our rights with respect to the PHS-owned patents are critical to Deep TMS-based technologies and systems, any unexpected consequences from the U.S. government’s or other third party’s exploitation of such rights could have an adverse impact on the market for Deep TMS and, hence, on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

If we are unable to protect the confidentiality of our trade secrets or know-how, such proprietary information may be used by others to compete against us.

 

In addition to filing patent applications, we generally try to protect our trade secrets, know-how, technology and other proprietary information by entering into confidentiality or non-disclosure agreements with parties that have access to it, such as our development and/or commercialization partners, employees, contractors and consultants. We also enter into agreements that require the disclosure and assignment to us of the rights to the ideas, developments, discoveries and inventions of our employees, advisors, research collaborators, contractors and consultants while we employ or engage them. However, we cannot assure you that these agreements will provide meaningful protection for our trade secrets, know-how or other proprietary information in the event of any unauthorized use, misappropriation or disclosure of such trade secrets, know-how or other proprietary information because these agreements can be difficult and costly to enforce or may not provide adequate remedies. Any of these parties may breach the confidentiality agreements and willfully or unintentionally disclose our confidential information, or our competitors might learn of the information in some other way. The disclosure to, or independent development by, a competitor of any trade secret, know-how or other technology not protected by a patent could materially adversely affect any competitive advantage we may have over any such competitor.

 

To the extent that any of our employees, advisors, research collaborators, contractors or consultants independently develop, or use independently developed, intellectual property in connection with any of our projects, disputes may arise as to the proprietary rights to this type of information. If a dispute arises with respect to any proprietary right, enforcement of our rights can be costly and unpredictable and a court may determine that the right belongs to a third party.

 

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Legal proceedings or third-party claims of intellectual property infringement and other challenges may require us to spend substantial time and money and could prevent us from developing or commercializing Deep TMS.

 

The development, manufacture, use, offer for sale, sale or importation of Deep TMS may infringe on the claims of third-party patents or other intellectual property rights. The nature of claims contained in unpublished patent filings around the world is unknown to us and it is not possible to know which countries patent holders may choose for the extension of their filings under the Patent Cooperation Treaty, or other mechanisms. Therefore, there is a risk that we could adopt a technology without knowledge of a pending patent application, which technology would infringe a third-party patent once that patent is issued. The cost to us of any intellectual property litigation or other infringement proceeding, even if resolved in our favor, could be substantial. Any claims of patent infringement, even those without merit, could be expensive and time consuming to defend; cause us to cease making, licensing or using products that incorporate the challenged intellectual property; require us to redesign, reengineer or rebrand Deep TMS, if feasible; cause us to stop from engaging in normal operations and activities, including developing and new indications for Deep TMS; and divert management’s attention and resources. Some of our competitors may be able to sustain the costs of such litigation or proceedings more effectively because of their substantially greater financial resources. Uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation or defense of intellectual property litigation or other proceedings could have a material adverse effect on our ability to compete in the marketplace. Intellectual property litigation and other proceedings may also absorb significant management time. Consequently, we may not be able to manufacture, use, offer for sale, sell or import our Deep TMS systems in the event of an infringement action.

 

Any claims we assert against perceived infringers could provoke these parties to assert counterclaims against us alleging that we infringe their patents. In addition, in a patent infringement proceeding, a court may decide that a patent of ours is invalid or unenforceable, in whole or in part, construe the patent’s claims narrowly or refuse to stop the other party from using the technology at issue on the grounds that our patents do not cover the technology in question. An adverse result in any litigation proceeding could put one or more of our patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly. Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation, there is a risk that some of our confidential information could be compromised by disclosure during this type of litigation.

 

In the event of patent infringement claims, or to avoid potential claims, we may choose or be required to seek a license from a third party and would most likely be required to pay license fees or royalties or both. These licenses may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all. Even if we were able to obtain a license, the rights may be nonexclusive, which could potentially limit our competitive advantage. Ultimately, we could be prevented from commercializing a product or be forced to cease some aspect of our business operations if, as a result of actual or threatened patent infringement or other claims, we are unable to enter into licenses on acceptable terms. This inability to enter into licenses could harm our business significantly.

 

In addition, because of our developmental stage, claims that Deep TMS infringes on the patent rights of others are more likely to be asserted after commencement of commercial sales incorporating our technology.

 

We may be subject to claims that our employees, consultants, or independent contractors have wrongfully used or disclosed confidential information of third parties or that our employees have wrongfully used or disclosed alleged trade secrets of their former employers.

 

We employ individuals who were previously employed at universities or other medical device, biotechnology and/or pharmaceutical companies, including our competitors or potential competitors. Although we try to ensure that our employees, consultants, and independent contractors do not use the proprietary information or know-how of others in their work for us, we may be subject to claims that we or our employees, consultants, or independent contractors have inadvertently or otherwise used or disclosed intellectual property, including trade secrets or other proprietary information, of any of our employees’ former employers or other third parties. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims. If we fail in defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel, which could adversely impact our business. Even if we are successful in defending against such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management and other employees.

 

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International patent protection is particularly uncertain, and if we are involved in opposition proceedings in foreign countries, we may have to expend substantial sums and management resources.

 

Patent law outside the United States may be different than in the United States. Further, the laws of some foreign countries may not protect our intellectual property rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States, if at all. A failure to obtain sufficient intellectual property protection in any foreign country could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and future prospects. Moreover, we may participate in opposition proceedings to determine the validity of our foreign patents or our competitors’ foreign patents, which could result in substantial costs and divert management’s resources and attention. Additionally, due to uncertainty in patent protection law, we have not filed applications in many countries where significant markets exist.

 

Risks Related to Our Functions in Israel

 

Our manufacturing, assembly and other significant functions are located in Israel and, therefore, our business and operations may be adversely affected by political, economic and military conditions in Israel.

 

Aspects of our business are located in Israel. Accordingly, our business will be directly influenced by the political, economic and military conditions affecting Israel at any given time. Since the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, a number of armed conflicts have occurred between Israel and its neighboring countries. These conflicts involved missile strikes against civilian targets in various parts of Israel including most recently, central Israel, and negatively affected business conditions in Israel. In addition, Israel faces threats from more distant neighbors, in particular, Iran. A change in the security and political situation in Israel and in the economy could impede the raising of the funds required to finance our research and development plans and to create joint ventures with third parties and could otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.

 

Our facilities are in range of rockets that may be fired from Lebanon, Syria or the Gaza Strip into Israel. In the event that our facilities are damaged as a result of hostile action or hostilities otherwise disrupt the ongoing operation of our facilities, our research and development activities and our ability to deliver products to customers could be materially and adversely affected. Our commercial insurance does not cover losses that may occur as a result of an event associated with the security situation in the Middle East. Although the Israeli government is currently committed to covering the reinstatement value of direct damages that are caused by terrorist attacks or acts of war, there can be no assurance that this government coverage will be maintained, or if maintained, will be sufficient to compensate us fully for damages incurred. Any losses or damages incurred by us could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

In addition, popular uprisings in various countries in the Middle East and North Africa are affecting the political stability of those countries. Such instability may lead to deterioration in the political and trade relationships that exist between the State of Israel and these countries. Furthermore, some countries restrict doing business with Israel and Israeli companies, and additional countries may impose restrictions on doing business with Israel and Israeli companies if hostilities involving Israeli or political instability in the region continue or intensify. Such restrictions may seriously limit our ability to sell Deep TMS to customers in those countries. These restrictions may materially limit our ability to sell our products to customers in those countries. In addition, there have been increased efforts by activists to cause companies and consumers to boycott Israeli products. Such efforts, particularly if they become more widespread, may materially and adversely impact our ability to sell our products.

 

Any hostilities involving Israel or the interruption or curtailment of trade between Israel and its present trading partners, or significant downturns in the economic or financial condition of could adversely affect our operations and product development, cause our revenues to decrease and adversely affect the share price of publicly traded companies having functions in Israel, such as us.

 

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Exchange rate fluctuations between the U.S. dollar, the New Israeli Shekel and other foreign currencies may negatively affect our future revenues.

 

In the future, we expect that a substantial portion of our revenues will be generated in U.S. dollars, although we currently incur a significant portion of our expenses in currencies other than U.S. dollars, such as NIS. Our financial records are maintained, and will be maintained, in U.S. dollars, although many of our expenses are incurred in NIS. As a result, our financial results may be affected by fluctuations in the exchange rates of currencies in the countries in which Deep TMS may be sold.

 

Our operations may be affected by negative labor conditions in Israel.

 

Strikes and work-stoppages occur relatively frequently in Israel. If Israeli trade unions threaten additional strikes or work-stoppages and such strikes or work-stoppages occur, those may, if prolonged, have a material adverse effect on the Israeli economy and on our business, including our ability to deliver products to our customers and to receive raw materials from our suppliers in a timely manner.

 

Our operations could be disrupted as a result of the obligation of our personnel to perform military service.

 

A significant portion of our senior management and key employees reside in Israel and although most of them are no longer required to perform reserve duty, some may be required to perform annual military reserve duty and may be called for active duty under emergency circumstances at any time. Our operations could be disrupted by the absence for a significant period of time of one or more of these officers or key employees due to military service. Any such disruption could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

 

The termination or reduction of tax and other incentives that the Israeli Government provides to domestic companies may increase the costs involved in operating a company in Israel.

 

The Israeli government currently provides tax and capital investment incentives to domestic companies, as well as grant and loan programs relating to research and development and marketing and export activities. In recent years, the Israeli Government has reduced the benefits available under these programs and the Israeli Governmental authorities have indicated that the government may in the future further reduce or eliminate the benefits of those programs. We may take advantage of these benefits and programs in the future, however, there is no assurance that such benefits and programs would continue to be available in the future to us. If such benefits and programs were terminated or further reduced, it could have an adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.

 

The Israeli government grants that we have received require us to meet several conditions and may restrict our ability to manufacture our Deep TMS systems and transfer relevant know-how outside of Israel and require us to pay royalties and satisfy specified conditions, including increased royalties if we manufacture our Deep TMS systems outside of Israel or payment of a redemption fee if we transfer relevant know-how outside of Israel.

 

We have received royalty-bearing grants from the government of Israel through the Israel Innovation Authority (IIA) formerly, the Office of the Chief Scientist of the Ministry of Economy and Industry, for the financing of a portion of our research and development expenditures in Israel. We are required to pay low single-digit royalties on the sale of those of our products developed with this funding, which payments shall not exceed, in the aggregate, the amount of the grant received (in U.S. dollars), plus interest at an annual rate based on LIBOR. When know-how is developed using IIA grants, the Encouragement of Research, Development and Technological Innovation in Industry Law 5744-1984, or the Innovation Law, the IIA’s rules and guidelines as well as the terms of each of these grants, impose an obligation to pay royalties from any income deriving from a product developed, in whole or in part, directly or indirectly, in the framework of a research and development program funded by the IIA, including any derivatives and related services and restrict our ability to manufacture our products and transfer know-how developed as a result of the IIA’s funded research and development outside of Israel. In certain cases, transfer of the IIA funded know-how outside of Israel requires pre-approval by the IIA, which may also impose certain conditions, including payment of a redemption fee calculated according to the formulas provided in the IIA’s rules and guidelines, or Redemption Fee, which differentiate between certain situations (while in no event will the Redemption Fee be more than six (6) times the grants received from the IIA plus interest). In addition, we may need to manufacture our products outside of Israel, in which case prior approval from the IIA is required (such approval is not required for the transfer of less than 10% of the manufacturing capacity in the aggregate), and we would be required to pay royalties at an accelerated rate and would be subject to payment of increased royalties, as defined under the IIA’s rules and regulations (up to, in the aggregate, 300% of the amount of the grant received (dollar linked), plus interest at annual rate based on LIBOR, depending on the manufacturing volume that is performed outside Israel less royalties already paid to the IIA). Accordingly, we may be limited in our ability to manufacture outside of Israel, and the manufacture of our products outside of Israel could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

 

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The IIA has also published rules and guidelines with respect to the grant to a foreign entity of the right to use know-how that was developed using the IIA’s grants, or Funded Know-How, (in a manner that does not entirely prevent the IIA funded company from using the Funded Know-How) which is subject to receipt of the IIA’s prior approval. This approval is subject to payment to the IIA in accordance with the formulas stipulated in these rules.

 

In addition, we may transfer Funded Know-How to another Israeli company, provided that the acquiring company assumes all of our responsibilities toward the IIA (the transfer would still require IIA approval and is subject to the obligation to pay royalties to the IIA from the income of such sale transaction, but will not be subject to the payment of the Redemption Fee).

 

The obligation to comply with the IIA’s rules and guidelines and the Innovation Law (including with respect to the restriction of the transfer of Funded Know-How and manufacturing rights outside of Israel) remains in effect even after full repayment of the amount of royalties payable pursuant to the grants. Once a Redemption Fee is paid on a transfer of Funded Know-How outside Israel, all obligations towards the IIA (including the royalty obligation) cease. We are also subject to reporting obligations towards the IIA including submitting during the R&D approved program period periodic reports pertaining to the progress of research and development, reports on income derived from products developed using grants from the IIA and in certain circumstances, reports regarding change in the holding and change in control. Furthermore, in the event of any change of control or any change in the holding of voting rights or rights to appoint directors or the CEO a result of which any non-Israeli citizen or non-Israeli resident becomes an “Interested Party” in our company, the non-Israeli citizen or non-Israeli resident shall comply with all the restrictions imposed on us and our obligations pursuant to Innovation Law and the IIA’s rules and guidelines. See “Management—Internal Auditor” for definition of Interested Party. In addition, the government of State of Israel may from time to time audit sales of products which it claims incorporate technology funded via IIA programs and this may lead to additional royalties being payable on additional product candidates. In addition, under certain circumstances, further offerings of our shares to the public in any stock exchange whether in Israel or abroad, is subject to the approval of the IIA.

 

These restrictions may impair our ability to enter into agreements for IIA Funded Know-how without the approval of the IIA, and we cannot be certain that it will be obtained on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all. Furthermore, in the event that we undertake a transaction involving the transfer to a non-Israeli entity of know-how developed with IIA funding pursuant to a merger or similar transaction, or in the event we undertake a transaction involving the licensing of the IIA’s Funded Know-How, the consideration available to our shareholders may be reduced by the amounts we are required to pay to the IIA. Any approval, if given, will generally be subject to additional financial obligations. Failure to comply with the requirements under the IIA’s rules and guidelines and the Innovation Law may subject us to mandatory repayment of grants received by us (together with interest and penalties), as well as expose us to criminal proceedings.

  

In August 2015, a new amendment to the Innovation Law was enacted, or Amendment No. 7, which came into effect on January 1, 2016. Since Amendment No. 7 has entered into force, the IIA was appointed to act as the entity which is responsible for the activity which was previously under the OCS’ responsibility. The IIA was granted wide freedom of action, and among other things, the authority to amend the requirements and restrictions which were specified in the Innovation Law before Amendment No. 7 became effective with respect to the ownership of Funded Know-How (including with respect to the restrictions on transfer of the Funded Know-How and manufacturing activities outside of Israel), as well as with respect to royalty payment obligations which apply to companies that receive grants from the IIA. Although the IIA’s published rules which for the most part adopted the principal provisions and restrictions in effect in the Innovation Law prior to the effectiveness of Amendment No. 7, we are unable to assess the effect on our business of any future rules which may be published by the IIA.

  

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Enforcing a U.S. judgment against us and our current senior management and directors, or asserting U.S. securities law claims in Israel, may be difficult.

 

We are incorporated in Israel. Members of our current senior management and directors reside in Israel (and most of our assets reside outside of the United States). Therefore, a judgment obtained against us or any of these persons in the United States, including one based on the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws, may not be collectible in the United States and may not be enforced by an Israeli court. It may also be difficult to effect service of process on these persons in the United States or to assert U.S. securities law claims in original actions instituted in Israel.

 

Even if an Israeli court agrees to hear such a claim, it may determine that Israeli, and not U.S., law is applicable to the claim. Under Israeli law, if U.S. law is found to be applicable to such a claim, the content of applicable U.S. law must be proved as a fact, which can be a time-consuming and costly process, and certain matters of procedure would be governed by Israeli law. There is little binding case law in Israel addressing these matters. See “Enforceability of Civil Liabilities” for additional information on your ability to enforce civil claim against us and our senior management and directors.

 

Provisions of our articles of association and Israeli law and tax considerations may delay, prevent or make difficult an acquisition of us, which could prevent a change of control and negatively affect the price of the ADSs.

 

Israeli corporate law regulates mergers, requires tender offers for acquisitions of shares above specified thresholds, requires special approvals for certain transactions involving directors, officers or significant shareholders and regulates other matters that may be relevant to these types of transactions. These provisions of Israeli law may delay, prevent or make difficult an acquisition of us, which could prevent a change of control and therefore depress the price of the ADSs.

 

Furthermore, Israeli tax considerations may make potential transactions unappealing to us or to our shareholders, especially for those shareholders whose country of residence does not have a tax treaty with Israel which exempts such shareholders from Israeli tax. For example, Israeli tax law does not recognize tax-free stock exchanges to the same extent as U.S. tax law. With respect to mergers, Israeli tax law allows for tax deferral in certain circumstances but makes the deferral contingent on the fulfillment of a number of conditions, including, in some cases, a holding period of two years from the date of the transaction during which sales and dispositions of shares of the participating companies are subject to certain restrictions. Moreover, with respect to certain share swap transactions, the tax deferral is limited in time, and when such time expires, the tax becomes payable even if no disposition of the shares has occurred.

 

We may become subject to claims for remuneration or royalties for assigned service invention rights by our employees, which could result in litigation and adversely affect our business.

 

We have entered into assignment of invention agreements with our employees who engage in research and development for the company pursuant to which such individuals agree to assign to us all rights to any inventions created during and as a result of their employment or engagement with us. A significant portion of our intellectual property has been developed by our employees in the course and as a result of their employment for us. Under the Israeli Patent Law, 5727-1967, or the Patent Law, inventions conceived by an employee during the scope of his or her employment with a company and as a result thereof are regarded as “service inventions,” which belong to the employer, absent a specific agreement between the employee and employer giving the employee service invention rights. The Patent Law also provides that if there is no agreement between an employer and an employee with respect to the employee’s right to receive compensation for such “service inventions,” the Israeli Compensation and Royalties Committee, or the Committee, a body constituted under the Patent Law, shall determine whether the employee is entitled to remuneration for his or her service inventions and the scope and conditions for such remuneration. Israeli case law clarifies that the right to receive consideration for “service inventions” can be waived by the employee and that in certain circumstances, such waiver does not necessarily have to be explicit. In order to determine the scope and validity of such wavier, the Committee will examine, on a case-by-case basis, the general contractual framework between the parties, using interpretation rules of the general Israeli contract laws. Further, the Committee has not yet determined one specific formula for calculating this remuneration (but rather uses the criteria specified in the Patents Law). As such, and. although our employees have agreed to assign to us service invention rights, we may face claims demanding remuneration in consideration for assigned inventions. As a consequence of such claims, we could be required to pay additional remuneration or royalties to our current and/or former employees, or be forced to litigate such claims, which could negatively affect our business.

 

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The government tax benefits that we currently are entitled to receive require us to meet several conditions and may be terminated or reduced in the future.

 

Some of our operations in Israel may entitle us to certain tax benefits under the Law for the Encouragement of Capital Investments, 5719-1959, or the Investment Law, once we begin to generate taxable income. If we do not meet the requirements for maintaining these benefits, they may be reduced or cancelled and the relevant operations would be subject to Israeli corporate tax at the standard rate, which is set at 23% in 2018 and thereafter. In addition to being subject to the standard corporate tax rate, we could be required to refund any tax benefits that we may receive in the future, plus interest and penalties thereon. Even if we continue to meet the relevant requirements, the tax benefits that our current “Technology Enterprise” is entitled to may not be continued in the future at their current levels or at all. If these tax benefits were reduced or eliminated, the amount of taxes that we pay would likely increase, as all of our operations would consequently be subject to corporate tax at the standard rate, which could adversely affect our results of operations. Additionally, if we increase our activities outside of Israel, for example, by way of acquisitions, our increased activities may not be eligible for inclusion in Israeli tax benefits programs. See “Material Tax Considerations—Israeli Tax Considerations and Government Programs—Tax Benefits Under the 2017 Amendment” for additional information concerning these tax benefits.

 

Your rights and responsibilities as a shareholder will be governed by Israeli law, which differs in some material respects from the rights and responsibilities of shareholders of U.S. companies.

 

The rights and responsibilities of our shareholders are governed by our articles of association and by Israeli law. These rights and responsibilities differ in some material respects from the rights and responsibilities of shareholders in U.S. corporations. For example, a shareholder of an Israeli company has a duty to act in good faith and in a customary manner in exercising its rights and performing its obligations towards the company and other shareholders, and to refrain from abusing its power in the company, including, among other things, voting at a general meeting of shareholders on matters such as amendments to a company’s articles of association, increases in a company’s authorized share capital, mergers and acquisitions and related party transactions requiring shareholder approval. In addition, a shareholder who is aware that it possesses the power to determine the outcome of a shareholder vote or to appoint or prevent the appointment of a director or executive officer in the company has a duty of fairness toward the company. There is limited case law available to assist us in understanding the nature of these duties or the implications of these provisions. These provisions may be interpreted to impose additional obligations and liabilities on our shareholders that are not typically imposed on shareholders of U.S. corporations.

 

Risks Related to our ADSs and Ordinary Shares

 

The price of the ADSs may be volatile and may fluctuate due to factors beyond our control.

 

The share price of publicly traded medical device companies has been highly volatile and is likely to remain highly volatile in the future. The market price of the ADSs or ordinary shares on either Nasdaq or the TASE, respectively, may fluctuate significantly due to a variety of factors, including:

 

positive or negative results of testing and clinical trials by us, strategic partners and competitors;

 

delays in entering into strategic relationships with respect to development and/or commercialization of Deep TMS or entry into strategic relationships on terms that are not deemed to be favorable to us;

 

technological innovations or commercial product introductions by us or competitors;

 

changes in government regulations;

 

developments concerning proprietary rights, including patents and litigation matters;

 

public concern relating to the commercial value or safety of Deep TMS;

 

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financing or other corporate transactions;

 

publication of research reports or comments by securities or industry analysts;

 

general market conditions in the medical device industry or in the economy as a whole; or

 

other events and factors, many of which are beyond our control.

 

These and other market and industry factors may cause the market price and demand for the ADSs to fluctuate substantially, regardless of our actual operating performance, which may limit or prevent investors from readily selling their ADSs and may otherwise negatively affect the liquidity of the ADSs. In addition, stock markets in general, and medical device companies in particular, have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of these companies.

 

The significant share ownership position of our officers, directors and entities affiliated with certain of our directors may limit your ability to influence corporate matters.

 

Our officers, directors and entities affiliated with certain of our directors beneficially own or control, directly or indirectly, approximately 24% of our outstanding ordinary shares as of March 22, 2020. Accordingly, these persons are able to significantly influence, though not independently determine, the outcome of matters required to be submitted to our shareholders for approval, including decisions relating to the election of our board of directors, and the outcome of any proposed merger or consolidation of our company. These interests may not be consistent with those of our other shareholders. In addition, these persons’ significant interest in us may discourage third parties from seeking to acquire control of us, which may adversely affect the market price of our ordinary shares.

 

Holders of ADSs are not treated as holders of our ordinary shares.

 

Holders of ADSs are not treated as holders of our ordinary shares, unless they withdraw the ordinary shares underlying their ADSs in accordance with the deposit agreement and applicable laws and regulations. The depositary is the holder of the ordinary shares underlying the ADSs. Holders of ADSs therefore do not have any rights as holders of our ordinary shares, other than the rights that they have pursuant to the deposit agreement. See “Description of American Depositary Shares.”

 

Holders of ADSs may be subject to limitations on the transfer of their ADSs and the withdrawal of the underlying ordinary shares.

 

ADSs are transferable on the books of the depositary. However, the depositary may close its books at any time or from time to time when it deems expedient in connection with the performance of its duties. The depositary may refuse to deliver, transfer or register transfers of ADSs generally when our books or the books of the depositary are closed, or at any time if we or the depositary think it is advisable to do so because of any requirement of law, government or governmental body, or under any provision of the deposit agreement, or for any other reason, subject to the right of ADS holders to cancel their ADSs and withdraw the underlying ordinary shares. Temporary delays in the cancellation of the ADSs and withdrawal of the underlying ordinary shares may arise because the depositary has closed its transfer books or we have closed our transfer books, the transfer of ordinary shares is blocked to permit voting at a shareholders’ meeting or we are paying a dividend on our ordinary shares. In addition, ADS holders may not be able to cancel their ADSs and withdraw the underlying ordinary shares when they owe money for fees, taxes and similar charges and when it is necessary to prohibit withdrawals in order to comply with any laws or governmental regulations that apply to ADSs or to the withdrawal of ordinary shares or other deposited securities. See “Description of American Depositary Shares.”

 

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We and the depositary are entitled to amend the deposit agreement and to change the rights of ADS holders under the terms of such agreement, or to terminate the deposit agreement, without the prior consent of the ADS holders.

 

We and the depositary are entitled to amend the deposit agreement and to change the rights of the ADS holders under the terms of such agreement, without the prior consent of the ADS holders. We and the depositary may agree to amend the deposit agreement in any way we decide is necessary or advantageous to us or to the depositary. Amendments may reflect, among other things, operational changes in the ADS program, legal developments affecting ADSs or changes in the terms of our business relationship with the depositary. In the event that the terms of an amendment are materially disadvantageous to ADS holders, ADS holders will only receive 30 days’ advance notice of the amendment, and no prior consent of the ADS holders is required under the deposit agreement. Furthermore, we may decide to direct the depositary to terminate the ADS facility at any time for any reason. For example, terminations may occur when we decide to list our ordinary shares on a non-U.S. securities exchange and determine not to continue to sponsor an ADS facility or when we become the subject of a takeover or a going-private transaction. If the ADS facility will terminate, ADS holders will receive at least 90 days’ prior notice, but no prior consent is required from them. Under the circumstances that we decide to make an amendment to the deposit agreement that is disadvantageous to ADS holders or terminate the deposit agreement, the ADS holders may choose to sell their ADSs or surrender their ADSs and become direct holders of the underlying ordinary shares, but will have no right to any compensation whatsoever.

 

ADSs holders may not be entitled to a jury trial with respect to claims arising under the deposit agreement, which could result in less favorable outcomes to the plaintiff(s) in any such action.

 

The deposit agreement governing the ADSs representing our ordinary shares provides that, to the fullest extent permitted by law, holders and beneficial owners of ADSs irrevocably waive the right to a jury trial of any claim they may have against us or the depositary arising out of or relating to the ADSs or the deposit agreement.

 

If this jury trial waiver provision is not permitted by applicable law, an action could proceed under the terms of the deposit agreement with a jury trial. If we or the depositary opposed a jury trial demand based on the waiver, the court would determine whether the waiver was enforceable based on the facts and circumstances of that case in accordance with the applicable state and federal law. To our knowledge, the enforceability of a contractual pre-dispute jury trial waiver in connection with claims arising under the federal securities laws has not been finally adjudicated by the United States Supreme Court. However, we believe that a contractual pre-dispute jury trial waiver provision is generally enforceable, including under the laws of the State of New York, which govern the deposit agreement, by a federal or state court in the City of New York, which has non-exclusive jurisdiction over matters arising under the deposit agreement. In determining whether to enforce a contractual pre-dispute jury trial waiver provision, courts will generally consider whether a party knowingly, intelligently and voluntarily waived the right to a jury trial. We believe that this is the case with respect to the deposit agreement and the ADSs. It is advisable that you consult legal counsel regarding the jury waiver provision before entering into the deposit agreement.

 

If you or any other holders or beneficial owners of ADSs bring a claim against us or the depositary in connection with matters arising under the deposit agreement or the ADSs, including claims under federal securities laws, you or such other holder or beneficial owner may not be entitled to a jury trial with respect to such claims, which may have the effect of limiting and discouraging lawsuits against us and / or the depositary. If a lawsuit is brought against us and/or the depositary under the deposit agreement, it may be heard only by a judge or justice of the applicable trial court, which would be conducted according to different civil procedures and may result in different outcomes than a trial by jury would have had, including results that could be less favorable to the plaintiff(s) in any such action, depending on, among other things, the nature of the claims, the judge or justice hearing such claims, and the venue of the hearing.

 

No condition, stipulation or provision of the deposit agreement or ADSs serves as a waiver by any holder or beneficial owner of ADSs or by us or the depositary of compliance with any substantive provision of the U.S. federal securities laws and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

 

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You will not have the same voting rights as the holders of our ordinary shares and may not receive voting materials in time to be able to exercise your right to vote.

 

Holders of the ADSs will not be able to exercise voting rights attaching to the ordinary shares represented by the ADSs. Under the terms of the deposit agreement, holders of the ADSs may instruct the depositary to vote the ordinary shares underlying their ADSs. Otherwise, holders of ADSs will not be able to exercise their right to vote unless they withdraw the ordinary shares underlying their ADSs to vote them in person or by proxy in accordance with applicable laws and regulations and our articles of association. Even so, ADS holders may not know about a meeting far enough in advance to withdraw those ordinary shares. If we ask for the instructions of holders of the ADSs, the depositary, upon timely notice from us, will notify ADS holders of the upcoming vote and arrange to deliver our voting materials to them. Upon our request, the depositary will mail to holders a shareholder meeting notice that contains, among other things, a statement as to the manner in which voting instructions may be given. We cannot guarantee that ADS holders will receive the voting materials in time to ensure that they can instruct the depositary to vote the ordinary shares underlying their ADSs. A shareholder is only entitled to participate in, and vote at, the meeting of shareholders, provided that it holds our ordinary shares as of the record date set for such meeting and otherwise complies with our articles of association. In addition, the depositary’s liability to ADS holders for failing to execute voting instructions or for the manner of executing voting instructions is limited by the deposit agreement. As a result, holders of ADSs may not be able to exercise their right to give voting instructions or to vote in person or by proxy and they may not have any recourse against the depositary or us if their ordinary shares are not voted as they have requested or if their shares cannot be voted.

 

Our ordinary shares and ADSs are traded on different markets and this may result in price variations.

 

Our ordinary shares have been traded on the TASE since January 4, 2007 and our ADSs have been traded on the Nasdaq Global Market since April 16, 2019. Trading in our securities on these markets takes place in different currencies (dollars on the Nasdaq and NIS on the TASE), and at different times (resulting from different time zones, different trading days and different public holidays in the United States and Israel). The trading prices of our securities on these two markets may differ due to these and other factors. Any decrease in the price of our securities on one of these markets could cause a decrease in the trading price of our securities on the other market.

 

We do not intend to pay dividends for at least the next several years

 

We do not anticipate paying any cash dividends for at least the next several years. We currently intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings to fund the development and growth of our business. As a result, capital appreciation, if any, of the ADSs will be the investors’ sole source of gain for at least the next several years. In addition, Israeli law limits our ability to declare and pay dividends, and may subject us to certain Israeli taxes. For more information, see “Dividend Policy.”

 

If equity research analysts do not publish research or reports about our business or if they issue unfavorable commentary or downgrade the ADSs, the price of the ADSs could decline.

 

The trading market for the ADSs will rely in part on the research and reports that equity research analysts publish about us and our business. The price of the ADSs could decline if one or more securities analysts downgrade the ADSs or if those analysts issue other unfavorable commentary or cease publishing reports about us or our business.

 

We may be subject to securities litigation, which is expensive and could divert our management’s attention.

 

In the past, U.S.-listed companies that have experienced volatility in the market price of their securities, including many life sciences and biotechnology companies, have been subject to securities class action litigation. We may be the target of this type of litigation in the future. Regardless of the merits or the ultimate results of such litigation, securities litigation brought against us could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention from other business concerns, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

 

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As a foreign private issuer whose shares are listed on the Nasdaq Global Market, we follow certain home country corporate governance practices instead of certain Nasdaq requirements.

 

As a foreign private issuer whose shares are listed on The Nasdaq Global Market, we are permitted to follow certain home country corporate governance practices instead of certain requirements of the rules of The Nasdaq Global Market. Pursuant to the “foreign private issuer exemption”:

 

we established a quorum requirement such that the quorum for any meeting of shareholders is two or more shareholders holding at least 331/3% of our voting rights, which complies with Nasdaq requirements; however, if the meeting is adjourned for lack of quorum, the quorum for such adjourned meeting will be two or more shareholders, having any percentage of our voting rights;
   
we also follow Israeli corporate governance practice in lieu of Nasdaq Marketplace Rule 5635(c), which requires shareholder approval for certain dilutive events (such as issuances that will result in a change of control, certain transactions other than a public offering involving issuances of a 20% or greater interest in us and certain acquisitions of the shares or assets of another company) and prior to an issuance of securities when a stock option or purchase plan is to be established or materially amended or other equity compensation arrangement made or materially amended, pursuant to which stock may be acquired by officers, directors, employees or consultants. By contrast, under the Israeli Companies Law, shareholder approval is required (subject to certain limited exceptions) for, among other things: (a) transactions with directors concerning the terms of their service (including indemnification, exemption, and insurance for their service or for any other position that they may hold at a company); (b) extraordinary transactions with controlling shareholders of publicly held companies; (c) terms of office and employment or other engagement of our controlling shareholder, if any, or such controlling shareholder’s relative; (d) approval of transactions with the company’s Chief Executive Officer with respect to his or her compensation, whether in accordance with the approved compensation policy of the company or not, or transactions with officers of the company not in accordance with the approved compensation policy; (e) approval of the compensation policy of the company for office holders and (f) certain private placements involving the issuance of 20% or more of our total voting rights, or private placements as a result of which a person will become a controlling shareholder of the company. In addition, under the Companies Law, a merger requires approval of the shareholders of each of the merging companies; and

 

as permitted by the Israeli Companies Law, our board of directors selects director nominees, and we do not have a written charter or board resolution addressing the nominations process. Directors are not selected, or recommended for board of director selection, by independent directors constituting a majority of the board’s independent directors or by a nominations committee comprised solely of independent directors as required by the Nasdaq Listing Rules.

 

Otherwise, we comply with the rules generally applicable to U.S. domestic companies listed on the Nasdaq Global Market. However, we may in the future decide to use the foreign private issuer exemption with respect to some or all of the other Nasdaq corporate governance rules. Following our home country governance practices as opposed to the requirements that would otherwise apply to a U.S. company listed on the Nasdaq Global Market may provide less protection than is accorded to investors of domestic issuers. See “Management—Foreign Private Issuer and Controlled Company Status.”

 

In addition, as a foreign private issuer, we are exempt from the rules and regulations under the United States Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, related to the furnishing and content of proxy statements (including disclosures with respect to executive compensation), and our officers, directors, and principal shareholders are exempt from the reporting and short-swing profit recovery provisions contained in Section 16 of the Exchange Act. In addition, we are not required under the Exchange Act to file annual, quarterly and current reports and financial statements with the SEC as frequently or as promptly as domestic companies whose securities are registered under the Exchange Act.

 

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We may lose our foreign private issuer status which would then require us to comply with the Exchange Act’s domestic reporting regime and cause us to incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses.

 

We are a foreign private issuer and therefore we are not required to comply with all of the periodic disclosure and current reporting requirements of the Exchange Act applicable to U.S. domestic issuers. In order to maintain our current status as a foreign private issuer, either (a) a majority of our ordinary shares and ADSs (calculated together) must be either directly or indirectly owned of record by non-residents of the United States or (b)(i) a majority of our senior management or directors may not be U.S. citizens or residents, (ii) more than 50 percent of our assets cannot be located in the United States and (iii) our business must be administered principally outside the United States. If we were to lose this status, we would be required to comply with the Exchange Act reporting and other requirements applicable to U.S. domestic issuers, which are more detailed and extensive than the requirements for foreign private issuers. We may also be required to make changes in our corporate governance practices in accordance with various SEC and Nasdaq rules. The regulatory and compliance costs to us under U.S. securities laws if we are required to comply with the reporting requirements applicable to a U.S. domestic issuer may be significantly higher than the cost we would incur as a foreign private issuer. As a result, we expect that a loss of foreign private issuer status would increase our legal and financial compliance costs and would make some activities highly time consuming and costly. We also expect that if we were required to comply with the rules and regulations applicable to U.S. domestic issuers, it would make it more difficult and expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain coverage. These rules and regulations could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified members of our board of directors.

 

We may incur increased costs as a result of operating as a public company in the United States, and our management may be required to devote substantial time to new compliance initiatives.

 

As a public company whose ADSs are listed in the United States, and particularly after we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company, we may incur accounting, legal and other expenses that we did not incur prior to our listing on Nasdaq and registration with the SEC, including costs associated with our reporting requirements under the Exchange Act. We also anticipate that we may incur costs associated with corporate governance requirements, including requirements under Section 404 and other provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (Sarbanes-Oxley Act), as well as rules implemented by the SEC and the Nasdaq Global Market, and provisions of Israeli corporate law applicable to public companies and the rules of the TASE. These rules and regulations may increase our legal and financial compliance costs, introduce new costs such as investor relations, increased insurance premiums and stock exchange listing fees, and may make some activities more time-consuming and costly. Our board and other personnel may need to devote a substantial amount of time to these initiatives. We are constantly evaluating and monitoring developments with respect to these rules, and we cannot predict or estimate the amount of additional costs we may incur or the timing of such costs.

 

Any future changes in the laws and regulations affecting public companies in the United States and Israel, including Section 404 and other provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the rules and regulations adopted by the SEC and the rules of the Nasdaq, will result in increased costs to us as we respond to such changes.

 

As an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act, we take advantage of certain temporary exemptions from various reporting requirements, including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (and the rules and regulations of the SEC thereunder). When these exemptions cease to apply, we expect to incur additional expenses and devote increased management effort toward ensuring compliance with them. We cannot predict or estimate the amount of additional costs we may incur as a result of becoming a public company or the timing of such costs.

 

Pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the related rules adopted by the SEC and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, starting with the next annual report that we file with the SEC, our management will be required to report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. In addition, once we no longer qualify as an “emerging growth company” under the JOBS Act and lose the ability to rely on the exemptions related thereto discussed above and depending on our status as per Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act, our independent registered public accounting firm may also need to attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting under Section 404. We have not yet commenced the process of determining whether our existing internal controls over financial reporting systems are compliant with Section 404 and whether there are any material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in our existing internal controls. This process will require the investment of substantial time and resources, including by our chief financial officer and other members of our senior management. As a result, this process may divert internal resources and take a significant amount of time and effort to complete. In addition, we cannot predict the outcome of this determination and whether we will need to implement remedial actions in order to implement effective controls over financial reporting. The determination and any remedial actions required could result in us incurring additional costs that we did not anticipate, including the hiring of outside consultants. Irrespective of compliance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, any failure of our internal controls could have a material adverse effect on our stated results of operations and harm our reputation. As a result, we may experience higher than anticipated operating expenses, as well as higher independent auditor fees during and after the implementation of these changes. If we are unable to implement any of the required changes to our internal control over financial reporting effectively or efficiently or are required to do so earlier than anticipated, it could adversely affect our operations, financial reporting and/or results of operations and could result in an adverse opinion on internal controls from our independent auditors. 

 

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Changes in the laws and regulations affecting public companies will result in increased costs to us as we respond to their requirements. These laws and regulations could make it more difficult or more costly for us to obtain certain types of insurance, including director and officer liability insurance, and we may be forced to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage. The impact of these requirements could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on our board of directors, our board committees or as senior management. We cannot predict or estimate the amount or timing of additional costs we may incur in order to comply with such requirements.

 

We are an “emerging growth company” and the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies may make the ADSs less attractive to investors.

 

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act, and we may take advantage of certain exemptions from various requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies.” Most of such requirements relate to disclosures that we would only be required to make if we also ceased to be a foreign private issuer in the future, for example, the requirement to hold shareholder advisory votes on executive and severance compensation and executive compensation disclosure requirements for U.S. companies. However, as a foreign private issuer, we could still be required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. We are exempt from such requirement for as long as we remain an emerging growth company, which may be up to five fiscal years after the date of our initial public offering on Nasdaq in April 2019. We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of: (a) the last day of our fiscal year during which we have total annual gross revenues of at least $1.07 billion; (b) December 31, 2024 (the last day of our fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the closing of our initial public offering on Nasdaq); (c) the date on which we have, during the previous three-year period, issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt; or (d) the date on which we are deemed to be a “large accelerated filer” under the Exchange Act. We may choose to take advantage of some or all of the available exemptions. When we are no longer deemed to be an emerging growth company, we will not be entitled to the exemptions provided in the JOBS Act discussed above. We cannot predict if investors will find the ADSs less attractive as a result of our reliance on exemptions under the JOBS Act. If some investors find the ADSs less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for the ADSs and our share price may be more volatile.

 

If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results or prevent fraud. As a result, shareholders could lose confidence in our financial and other public reporting, which would harm our business and the trading price of the ADSs.

 

Effective internal controls over financial reporting are necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports and, together with adequate disclosure controls and procedures, are designed to prevent fraud. Any failure to implement required new or improved controls, or difficulties encountered in their implementation could cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations. In addition, any testing by us conducted in connection with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, or any subsequent testing by our independent registered public accounting firm, may reveal deficiencies in our internal controls over financial reporting that are deemed to be material weaknesses or that may require prospective or retroactive changes to our financial statements or identify other areas for further attention or improvement. Inferior internal controls could also cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, which could have a negative effect on the trading price of the ADSs.

 

Our management will be required to assess the effectiveness of our internal controls and procedures and disclose changes in these controls on an annual basis. However, for as long as we are an “emerging growth company” under the JOBS Act, our independent registered public accounting firm will not be required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404. We could be an “emerging growth company” for up to five years. An independent assessment of the effectiveness of our internal controls could detect problems that our management’s assessment might not. Undetected material weaknesses in our internal controls could lead to financial statement restatements and require us to incur the expense of remediation.

 

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Risks Related to Tax Matters

 

We may be a passive foreign investment company for U.S. federal income tax purposes, which generally would result in certain adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to our U.S. shareholders.

 

In general, a non-U.S. corporation is a “passive foreign investment company” (a PFIC) for any taxable year in which (i) 75% or more of its gross income consists of passive income (the “income test”) or (ii) 50% or more of the average quarterly value of its assets consists of assets that produce, or are held for the production of, passive income (the “asset test”). Generally, “passive income” includes interest, dividends, rents, royalties and certain gains, and cash is a passive asset for PFIC purposes. We do not believe that we are currently a PFIC, and we do not anticipate becoming a PFIC in the foreseeable future. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the determination of whether we are a PFIC depends on the particular facts and circumstances (such as the valuation of our assets, including goodwill and other intangible assets) and also may be affected by the application of the PFIC rules, which are subject to differing interpretations. The fair market value of our assets is expected to depend, in part, upon (i) the market price of the ADSs, which is likely to fluctuate, and (ii) the composition of our income and assets, which will be affected by how, and how quickly, we spend any cash that is raised in any financing transaction. If we were a PFIC for any taxable year during which a U.S. shareholder owned the ADSs, such U.S. shareholder generally will be subject to certain adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences, including increased tax liability on gains from dispositions of the ADSs and certain distributions and a requirement to file annual reports with the Internal Revenue Service. In light of the foregoing, no assurance can be provided that we are not currently a PFIC or that we will not become a PFIC in any future taxable year. Prospective investors should consult their own tax advisers regarding our PFIC status. See “Material Tax Considerations—Certain U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Passive Foreign Investment Company Considerations.”

 

ITEM 4.INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

 

A.History and Development of the Company

 

Our legal and commercial name is Brainsway Ltd. We are a limited liability company that was incorporated under the laws of the State of Israel in November 2006. We completed our initial public offering on the TASE in January 2007, and in April 2019 we completed the listing of our ADSs on the NASDAQ Global Market. Our ordinary shares are currently listed on the TASE under the symbol “BWAY”, and our ADSs are currently listed on the NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol “BWAY”. Our principal executive offices are located at 19 Hartum Street, Bynet Building, 3rd Floor, Har HaHotzvim, Jerusalem 9777518, Israel, and our telephone number is +972-2-582-4030.

 

The Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at http://sec.gov.

 

Our ordinary shares have been traded on the TASE since January 4, 2007 and our ADSs have been traded on the Nasdaq Global Market since April 16, 2019.

 

Our web site address is http://www.brainsway.com. Information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website does not constitute a part of this Annual Report.

 

Our capital expenditures for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018, and 2017 were approximately $3 million, $2 million and $1 million respectively. Our current capital expenditures involve purchase of property and equipment and system components.

 

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B.Business Overview

 

We are a commercial stage medical device company focused on the development and sale of non-invasive neuromodulation products using our proprietary Deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (Deep TMS) technology for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), for which we have received marketing authorization from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Deep TMS uses magnetic pulses to stimulate neurons and consequently modulates the physiological activity of the brain. Our technology can either increase brain activity in neuronal networks which are hypoactive, or alternatively decrease brain activity in neuronal networks which are hyperactive. Our proprietary electromagnetic coils, which we refer to as H-Coils, are designed to safely stimulate deep and broad brain regions, which we believe provides an advantage over other available TMS products, which we refer to collectively as Focal TMS, that generally use a “figure 8” design. We believe that our Deep TMS technology has the potential to be safe and effective for the treatment of a wide range of psychiatric, neurological and addiction disorders beyond MDD and OCD.

 

MDD is a common and debilitating mental disorder characterized by physiological symptoms, such as sleep disturbance and changes in appetite, emotional symptoms, such as sadness, despair, emptiness, self-hate and critique, and cognitive symptoms, such as difficulty concentrating, memory dysfunction, suicidal thinking and faulty judgment of reality. According to a 2015 study by the World Health Organization (WHO), MDD affects approximately 300 million people worldwide, with the rate of depression increasing in developed countries. The U.S. National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) estimates that 16.2 million individuals in the United States suffer from a major depressive episode within a given year. Based on 2006-2007 data from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study, we estimate that approximately 4.9 million adult MDD patients in the United States are considered treatment-resistant (i.e., do not benefit from anti-depressant medication), of which we estimate that approximately 3.4 million or more are currently eligible to receive reimbursement for Deep TMS from either governmental or private insurers. Assuming a course of treatment per patient of 33 treatment sessions and a price paid to us per treatment session of $70 (which is the price per treatment session used in our risk share pricing model), we believe our total annual addressable market opportunity for MDD in the United States is approximately $8 billion.

 

OCD is a common, chronic and long-lasting disorder in which a person has uncontrollable, reoccurring thoughts (obsessions) and behaviors (compulsions) that he or she feels the urge to repeat over and over in a manner that can interfere with all aspects of life, such as work, school, and personal relationships. Based on data from the NIMH, we estimate that approximately 2.24 million adults in the United States suffer from OCD annually. Of these people, we estimate approximately 820,000 patients have sought treatment for OCD and approximately 410,000 are considered treatment-resistant. Assuming a course of treatment per patient of 29 treatment sessions and a price paid to us per treatment session of $70 (which is the price per treatment session used in our risk share pricing model), we believe our total annual addressable market opportunity for OCD in the United States is approximately $800 million.

 

Our first commercial Deep TMS product received clearance from the FDA in 2013 for the treatment of MDD in adult patients who have failed to achieve satisfactory improvement from anti-depressant medication in the current episode. Our pivotal trial for MDD demonstrated statistically significant response and remission rates of 38.4% and 32.6%, respectively, in week five of Deep TMS treatment of 20 minutes per session, compared to 21.4% and 14.6%, respectively, after sham treatment. Our Deep TMS system for MDD is currently marketed to and installed at psychiatrists’ offices and other facilities principally in the United States and in certain other countries throughout the world.

 

In addition to our FDA clearance of Deep TMS for MDD, we are the first and only medical device company to offer an FDA-authorized non-invasive treatment for OCD, the marketing authorization for which we received in August 2018 as an adjunct therapy for adult patients suffering from OCD. Our pivotal trial for OCD demonstrated statistically significant response and partial response rates of 38.1% and 54.8%, respectively, after six weeks of daily active Deep TMS treatment of 19 minutes per session, compared to 11.1% and 26.7%, respectively, after sham treatment.

 

We believe that Deep TMS represents a platform technology that provides for an opportunity to develop additional Deep TMS products for a variety of psychiatric, neurological and addiction disorders. We recently completed multicenter clinical trials to support FDA clearance of Deep TMS for smoking cessation and are working to facilitate a clearance pathway for that indication. We are also planning multicenter trials for other indications, including opioid addiction, multiple sclerosis (MS), and post-stroke rehabilitation, the latter of which are the first neurological indications that we plan to advance into multicenter trials.

 

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We recently decided to discontinue the funding of our PTSD multicenter clinical study following an insufficient demonstration of efficacy during an interim analysis of the results achieved with the first 87 eligible subjects who completed the study protocol. We consider future PTSD studies using alternative parameters.

 

Our current customers are principally doctors, hospitals and medical centers in the field of psychiatry. Treatment with Deep TMS is typically performed as an office-based procedure using our Deep TMS system, which consists of our proprietary H-Coil helmet, as well as several other components, including a stimulator, cooling system, positioning arm and an operator interface. A course of treatment for MDD typically requires 20 treatment sessions five times a week over a period of four weeks, and thereafter up to 24 additional maintenance-continuation sessions twice weekly over a period of up to 12 weeks. The standard Deep TMS treatment protocol for OCD requires 29 treatment sessions over six weeks. A standard MDD or OCD session lasts 20 minutes and 19 minutes, respectively. Patients may experience some discomfort during treatment and must use earplugs to reduce exposure to the loud sounds produced by the device. The treatment requires no anesthesia, hospitalization or sedation and no systemic side effects have been reported.

 

We estimate that over 90% of the total private insurer adult covered lives in the United States have coverage for reimbursement of MDD treatment with Deep TMS, available after three to four failures of anti-depressant medications. In addition, our MDD treatment with Deep TMS may be eligible for reimbursement from Medicare, and is expected to be available after four failures of anti-depressant medications. Deep TMS for OCD is not currently investigational . However, we believe that there is currently an out-of-pocket market for our Deep TMS systems for OCD, and we are working to broaden the scope of reimbursement coverage for Deep TMS to include OCD treatment, based on novelty of the technology, unmet clinical need and the efficacy and safety profile of the treatment.

 

The United States is our primary and most strategic market, representing approximately 90% of our revenues for the year ended December 31, 2019. We operate in the United States through our wholly owned subsidiary, Brainsway USA Inc, as a direct marketing and sales channel, where we currently have existing sales, marketing and support infrastructure. We are currently ramping up our commercialization efforts of Deep TMS for MDD and OCD. We generate revenue from various flexible pricing models that are designed to maximize market penetration. For the year ended December 31, 2019, we generated revenues of $23 million, an increase of 41% compared to the year ended December 31, 2018..

 

Our Deep TMS Platform

 

Our proprietary Deep TMS technology is intended for non-invasive treatment of psychiatric, neurological and addiction disorders. The system includes an H-Coil uniquely designed to transmit electric current flows at varying rates, creating an electromagnetic field that serves to depolarize cortical neurons and activate neural networks in certain areas of the brain in accordance with the operating frequency, with the effect of treating the disorder associated with that area of the brain. Our innovative technology is capable of stimulating deeper and broader regions of the brain than any other commercially available TMS product.

 

We have developed a number of H-Coils with differing configurations, building upon our technology with important changes for each coil. For different regions of the brain which are known to be associated with specific brain disorders, we offer different H-Coils that are designed to influence the neurological networks of those regions. For example, we have one H-Coil (BrainsWay D) that is used in our Deep TMS system for MDD, and we have another H-Coil for OCD (BrainsWay OCD) that is used for OCD (and future clinical development is planned for opioid addiction). The H-Coils transmit pulses which are generated by a power supply, known as a stimulator. We recently developed our own proprietary stimulator that is more advanced than our previously used third-party stimulator and improves our approved Deep TMS systems through its user-friendly software interface and other features. We obtained FDA 510(k) clearance for our proprietary stimulator as a modification to the FDA clearance for both the MDD and OCD indications. In addition, we are currently developing a next generation multichannel stimulator allowing for simultaneous modulation of different areas of the brain with independent stimulation parameters, thus potentially enabling more flexible and effective treatment of various brain disorders, which we believe would make our Deep TMS systems even more attractive to clinicians, researchers and patients. This innovation is potentially well-positioned for use in neurology indications.

 

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Our Deep TMS system is comprised of the various key components, as illustrated below:

 

Helmet, including proprietary H-Coil

 

Stimulator, which provides the power supply and source of the Deep TMS electromagnetic field

 

Graphic User Interface (GUI)

 

One or More Arm(s)/Positioning Device(s)

 

Cooling System

 

Movable Medical Cart

 

We believe our Deep TMS system has many advantages relative to other TMS products currently on the market. Our H-Coil is a flexible device encased in a helmet that fits securely around the patient’s head. This, together with the proprietary structure of our H-Coil, means that a much larger surface area of the head is in contact with the H-Coil. Furthermore, if the patient moves his or her head, the helmet—and thus the H-Coil—moves along with it, eliminating the need for features which prevent the patient from moving his or her head during therapy. In contrast, all other currently available TMS products utilize what we refer to as Focal TMS, which generally utilizes a variation of the figure 8 coil that is placed adjacent to the scalp of the patient and needs to be specifically positioned and attached to the head in order to deliver focal stimulation of the desired area of the brain. Whereas some figure 8 coils are handheld by the operator, some Focal TMS systems attach the coil to an apparatus designed to minimize the ability of the patient to move the head away from the relevant portion of the coil during therapy and thus failing to achieve the required stimulation. These features either alert the operator in the event of a shift of the patient’s head away from the coil, or actually fasten the coil next to the patient’s head. In either case, only a small surface area on the patient’s head comes into contact with the figure 8 coil. Focal TMS is limited to the narrow area treated, and the manual placing of the figure 8 coil in Focal TMS may cause inaccuracies in the region treated. Studies suggest that the figure 8 coil misses the target in 33% of patients.

 

A course of treatment for MDD typically requires 20 treatment sessions five times a week over a period of four weeks, and thereafter up to 24 additional maintenance-continuation sessions twice weekly over a period of up to 12 weeks. The standard Deep TMS treatment protocol for OCD requires 29 treatment sessions over six weeks. The clearance for this indication is categorized as an adjunct therapy, which means that it should be administered in conjunction with other first-line therapies and/or medications, as determined in the independent medical judgment of the treating healthcare professional on a case-by-case basis A standard MDD or OCD session lasts 20 and 19 minutes, respectively. The protocol for OCD also requires a short provocation procedure (i.e., triggering of OCD symptoms), to ensure that Deep TMS is calibrated to treat the particular needs of the patient, which is then followed by a Deep TMS session. The treatments are typically officebased procedures performed in private clinics, hospitals, universities and other medical centers. As with Focal TMS, Deep TMS is contraindicated for patients with metallic objects or implanted stimulator devices in or near the head, including cochlear implants, deep brain stimulators, other implanted electrodes or stimulators, aneurysm clips or coils, stents, bullet fragments, jewelry and hair barrettes. During treatment, the patient must use earplugs to reduce exposure to the loud sounds produced by the device.

 

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We believe that Deep TMS has additional advantages over Focal TMS because it is capable of stimulating deeper and broader areas of the brain. Studies have shown that while Focal TMS devices create an electromagnetic field estimated to penetrate the cortical surface of the brain up to depths in the range of 0.7 centimeters to 1.1 centimeters, Deep TMS creates a magnetic field with a slower and more gradual deterioration that reaches depths from the cortical surface of approximately 1.8 centimeters for BrainsWay D and approximately 3.5 centimeters for BrainsWay OCD. Studies have also shown that BrainsWay D has the capacity for total stimulated brain volume of 17 cm3 compared to 3 cm3 for the figure 8 coil used in Focal TMS. We believe this deeper and broader penetration of Deep TMS provides an advantage over Focal TMS because of its potential to address a wider variety of brain disorders, and for a given disorder, to stimulate more relevant brain structures.

 

The training for operation of a Deep TMS system is relatively simple and generally requires a day of training which includes classroom lectures as well as a number of hours of practice providing treatment. The OCD training protocol also includes instruction on addressing specific obsessions and compulsions.

 

Competitive Strengths

 

Deep TMS technology has advantages over Focal TMS.

 

We believe that Deep TMS, with our proprietary H-Coil design, allows for deeper and broader penetration of regions of the brain compared to Focal TMS, permitting Deep TMS to address a wider variety of psychiatric, neurological and addiction disorders. We believe that this deeper and broader penetration provides us with the opportunity to address more indications with potentially greater clinical efficiency because Deep TMS stimulates a larger portion of the brain and is less sensitive to coil orientation and position during treatment. In addition, Deep TMS is administered at stimulation levels that we believe are as safe and tolerable as Focal TMS.

 

We have obtained FDA marketing authorizations of Deep TMS for MDD and OCD.

 

We are the only company to have obtained FDA marketing authorizations for TMS products in more than one psychiatric indication: MDD, which was FDA-cleared in 2013, and OCD, which was classified by FDA as a Class II device in a de novo classification in August 2018. For MDD, we are one of only two TMS companies that have performed clinical studies supporting the FDA clearance. We are the first and only TMS company to have developed a non-invasive medical device that has received FDA marketing authorization for OCD.

 

Our clinical data supports the efficacy and safety of Deep TMS.

 

We believe that our clinical data supports the efficacy and safety of Deep TMS that will accelerate its market acceptance by clinicians. Our pivotal trial for MDD demonstrated statistically significant response and remission rates of 38.4% and 32.6%, respectively, in week five of Deep TMS treatment of 20 minutes per session, compared to 21.4% and 14.6%, respectively, after sham treatment. Our pivotal trial for OCD demonstrated statistically significant response and partial response rates of 38.1% and 54.8%, respectively, after six weeks of daily active Deep TMS treatment of 19 minutes per session, compared to 11.1% and 26.7%, respectively, after sham treatment. Overall, Deep TMS treatment was safe and well-tolerated by patients in these trials.

 

We have a commercial track record for MDD and are ramping up commercialization for OCD.

 

We have an established commercial footprint in the United States for Deep TMS for MDD, including our own sales, marketing and support employees at our U.S.-based subsidiary. We estimate that over 90% of total private insurer covered lives in the United States have coverage for reimbursement of MDD treatment with Deep TMS. In addition, our MDD treatment with Deep TMS may be eligible for reimbursement from Medicare. We are also currently selling Deep TMS for MDD in Europe, Mexico, Israel and certain other countries. We are currently ramping up our commercialization efforts for Deep TMS for OCD. We believe that our installed base of Deep TMS systems for MDD will facilitate faster expansion into OCD because clinicians who already have a Deep TMS system only need to lease an add-on arm and helmet to the existing system. We are currently working to obtain insurance reimbursement coverage for OCD in the United States.

 

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Our flexible pricing models are designed to achieve market penetration.

 

For Deep TMS for MDD, we offer a fixed-fee lease model enabling unlimited use, including warranty and support, or provide an option to purchase, including a one-year warranty. In addition, we offer a risk share model, a pay-per-use pricing model with a minimum annual fee, for MDD, and for OCD, we offer only our risk share model. We believe these pricing models will increase market acceptance among clinics and psychiatric professionals at reduced up-front costs compared to our sales or fixed-lease models. Based on our commercial data, and depending on insurer reimbursement rates, we believe our psychiatrist customers can generate approximately $10,000 of revenues per patient for a course of treatment using our system.

 

Deep TMS has potential applicability to a range of psychiatric, neurological and addiction disorders.

 

Deep TMS has the potential to serve as a platform technology that can address a potentially wide variety of other psychiatric, neurological and addiction disorders by using the appropriate H-Coil structure for the targeted brain region. We are working to facilitate a clearance pathway for our recently completed smoking cessation multicenter trial, and we are also planning trials for opioid addiction, and other neurological indications . We were selected to be one of eight participants, out of over 250 applications, in the FDA Innovation Challenge: Devices to Prevent and Treat Opioid Use Disorder. Furthermore, in March 2019, the FDA granted our system a Breakthrough Device Designation for the Treatment of Opioid Use Disorder. The Breakthrough Devices Program is intended by the FDA to help patients have more timely access to medical devices which may provide more effective treatment of life-threatening or irreversibly debilitating diseases or conditions. We are currently working directly with the FDA on the design of the planned opioids addiction study. As a result of these developments, all of our regulatory submissions for the planned opioids addiction study will be subject to priority review by senior FDA officials.

 

Our Strategy

 

We are currently focused on expanding the commercialization of Deep TMS with respect to the two indications that have FDA marketing authorization, MDD and OCD. Simultaneously, we are continuing to pursue the potential application of Deep TMS for smoking cessation through our recently completed pivotal multicenter trial for this indication. In addition, we are actively engaged in research for other potential applications for Deep TMS for patients suffering from neurological conditions and addictions. For each potential indication, we assess and evaluate our technology’s efficacy, safety, patent status, market potential, and development and regulatory pathways. Our systematic approach to evaluating and developing applications for Deep TMS allows us to continually build upon our clinical pipeline, and advance those applications with the greatest clinical effect and revenue potential. We also plan to advance other technological innovations in the neuromodulation space for the improvement of our products. For example, we are currently developing a multichannel stimulator allowing for simultaneous modulation of different areas of the brain, as well as pursuing personalized treatment solutions allowing for providers to customize ideal treatment approaches for each patient.

 

Specific elements of our strategy include the following:

 

Increase the full-scale commercialization of Deep TMS for MDD and accelerate commercialization of Deep TMS for OCD.

 

We are continuing to scale up our commercialization of Deep TMS for MDD as we seek to further penetrate the MDD market. We continue to focus our principal commercial activity on the U.S. market in light of the market size and wide range of insurance coverage. In addition, we plan to commence full-scale commercialization of our Deep TMS for OCD, which is currently the only non-invasive medical device FDA-authorized for the treatment of OCD, pending reimbursement coverage for this indication.

 

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Pursue additional indications and technological innovations for Deep TMS.

 

The majority of our research and development efforts are currently focused on pursuing a regulatory pathway for our recently completed multi-center clinical trial in smoking cessation and on pursuing other technological innovations. We are also working to expand the application to other areas as well such as forms of addictions, targeting first opioid addictions, as well as neurological indications such as MS. We intend to progress these plans ourselves and through our relationships with third-party researchers and clinical institutions in conducting clinical trials for additional psychiatric, neurological and addiction disorders. With this approach, we address psychiatric, neurological and addiction disorders that we believe present some of the most promising market opportunities for Deep TMS.

 

Expand reimbursement coverage for Deep TMS for OCD and other approved indications in the future.

 

A key prerequisite to the successful market acceptance of Deep TMS is securing sufficient insurance/third-party payer coverage. The scope and level of coverage are also key factors in our ability to penetrate the market and to expand further use of our Deep TMS system by healthcare providers and facilities for the benefit of the larger patient population. We aim to achieve similar levels of reimbursement for Deep TMS for OCD, which was granted marketing authorization in the United States, and we are also working to obtain reimbursement in other jurisdictions.

 

Develop innovative enhancements and features for our Deep TMS systems.

 

We continue to develop innovative enhancements and features for our Deep TMS systems to expand the applicability of Deep TMS to additional indications and improve the capabilities of the systems for approved indications. For example, we are currently developing a novel multichannel stimulator, which is designed to target multiple brain regions simultaneously with independent stimulation parameters, thus potentially enabling more flexible and effective treatment of various brain disorders. We believe this design enhancement would make Deep TMS even more efficient to clinicians, researchers and patients, and is potentially well-positioned for use in neurology.

 

Increase our international commercial footprint.

 

We are working to expand our existing commercial footprint in Europe, Asia, Latin America and Israel, and pursue commercialization in additional markets, such as Japan and various Asian countries. We currently have exclusive distribution agreements in Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, the Philippines Ecuador and Costa Rica.

 

We obtained regulatory approval with the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) in Japan, which is a precondition to receiving reimbursement coverage under the Japanese National Health Insurance Plan. We are working through our Japanese distributor with the relevant bodies in Japan to update the local society guidelines to include Deep TMS in order to obtain such coverage.

 

In Israel, we terminated our distribution agreement with our previous Israeli distributor, assuming direct operations for customers in Israel as of July 2019.

 

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Deep TMS for MDD

 

Disease Overview

 

MDD is a common and debilitating mental disorder characterized by physiological symptoms, such as sleep disturbance and changes in appetite, emotional symptoms, such as sadness, despair, emptiness, self-hate and critique, and cognitive symptoms, such as difficulty concentrating, memory dysfunction, suicidal thinking and faulty judgment of reality. MDD is expressed differently, and in different intensities, among patients, and significantly impacts the functioning in all aspects of life. Patients are often not diagnosed due to low levels of awareness of the disease and its symptoms by the patient and the family doctor involved, or due to prejudice related to psychotherapy. In order to be diagnosed with MDD, a patient must display symptoms that are present most of the day, nearly every day, for at least two weeks. A diagnosis of MDD is established by clinical interview and an assessment of whether a patient reports a collection of the relevant symptoms.

 

MDD is a recurrent disease and follows a fluctuating course over an individual’s lifetime, with periods of remission and relapse. If an initial episode of MDD is resolved, the return of depressive symptoms during the first nine months thereafter is referred to as a relapse of the illness and is generally considered to be part of the same depressive episode. When depressive symptoms return more than 12 months after the initial episode of MDD is resolved, it is considered to be a recurrence of the illness and is deemed a new and distinct episode. A response to treatment is commonly measured as a clinically significant decrease in symptoms on a standardized rating scale from baseline scores. When a patient shows no or nearly no symptoms, the patient is referred to as being in remission. Experiencing one episode of MDD places an individual at an estimated 50% risk of experiencing an additional episode of MDD. Approximately 80% of those individuals who have experienced two episodes of MDD will experience an additional episode.

 

In people with MDD, the complex system of neuronal communication does not function properly. One of the most important discoveries in neuroscience has been the recognition that improper regulation of one or more of the three major neurotransmitters, serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine, plays a key role in a patient’s depression. This understanding has guided psychiatric drug development and the treatment of depression for more than three decades by placing a major focus on targeting chemically-based mechanisms. The relatively recent introduction of TMS as a targeted, circuit-based treatment option has reintroduced the importance of electrical mechanisms in restoring proper function to neuronal pathways to treat depression.

 

Market Information

 

According to the WHO and the NIMH, an estimated 300 million people worldwide including 16.2 million individuals in the United States develop a major depressive episode within a given year. We estimate that there are 57 million depression patients in India, 55 million in China, 25 million in Europe and 5 million in Japan. MDD is one of the most prevalent mental illnesses across all demographics. According to the Clinical Psychology Review, MDD follows a chronic course of repeated bouts of remission and recurrence in about 50% of people affected. The chronic nature of MDD makes it the leading cause of years lost to disability in the world, and MDD patients are more likely to commit suicide. According to the American Journal of Psychiatry, roughly 2% of MDD patients treated as outpatients, and 4% of those hospitalized because of their condition, commit suicide. In addition, studies suggest that some patients exhibit a higher mortality rate even after controlling for suicide. Due to the prevalence and severity of MDD, the treatment of the disorder is a pressing concern for mental health professionals.

 

We focus on the population segment for whom conventional treatment (medicinal and/or psychotherapy) of MDD has not provided the required clinical response, as patients who are treatment-resistant and are entitled to reimbursement for Deep TMS treatment. It is customary to assess that approximately half of the sufferers from the illness do not respond to the first medicinal treatment, and that one-third do not find conventional solutions to their suffering at all. In addition, even among patients who receive medicinal treatment that is found effective, many suffer from severe side effects that cause them to abandon the treatment and be left with their depressive condition. We aim to meet the enormous need of these groups of treatment-resistant patients and provide effective, non-medicinal treatment which is not accompanied by the systemic side effects of the medication on the one hand and the electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) treatments on the other hand (such as damage to memory).

 

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Treatment Options for MDD

 

Treatment for patients diagnosed with MDD varies by disease severity. For patients with mild to moderate depression, first line treatment is usually psychotherapy (the treatment of mental disorders by psychological means), especially if the patient is able to identify particular stressors or sources of depressive symptoms. For some of these patients, pharmacotherapy (anti-depressant medication) may be used to supplement psychotherapy. For patients with moderate depression, pharmacotherapy with or without psychotherapy is the recommended initial treatment. TMS is a second line therapy for the treatment of a patient who has failed to achieve satisfactory improvement from prior pharmacotherapy. For patients with severe depression and later stage treatment, somatic treatments such as ECT may be an option.

 

The central group of anti-depressant medicines is the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake (SNR). Drug side effects play a decisive role in treatment selection and modification, as each class of drugs is associated with a host of side effects, some more severe or more common than others. The most common side effects include gastrointestinal symptoms, sedation, insomnia, weight changes, sexual dysfunction, nervousness, sleep disruption, nausea, headaches and cardiovascular or neurological effects. Side effects may also cause patients not to adhere to the treatment or to abandon it. On initiation of anti-depressant pharmacotherapy, close monitoring for response to treatment and development of side effects is essential.

 

The limitations of anti-depressant medications in MDD treatment were demonstrated in the STAR*D study, a large clinical trial funded by the NIMH that enrolled more than 4,000 adult MDD patients at 41 clinical sites to examine the outcomes to a sequenced series of anti-depressant medication attempts that mimicked best practices. In the study, only 36.8% and 30.6% of patients achieved remission in their first and second medication attempts, respectively. In addition, 30-40% of MDD patients did not experience a meaningful response to anti-depressant medication. This means that there is still a significant number of patients who could benefit from an alternative treatment such as Deep TMS.

 

Side effects are one of the most commonly cited reasons for patients terminating the use of anti-depressants. The most troubling side effects resulting from long-term anti-depressant use are insomnia, weight gain, and sexual dysfunction. In addition, correlation was discovered between consumption of SSRI medications and actualization of suicidal thoughts in youth, and some SSRI group medicines require strict diets and medical supervision.

 

TMS has been used as an anti-depressant therapy since 2008. Currently, TMS for MDD is only recommended for treatment-resistant MDD patients, and payers typically require that patients fail three or more anti-depressant medications prior to receiving TMS. However, research has shown that TMS is also effective in treating depressive symptoms in patients who fail one to two anti-depressant medications. For many patients, the side effects associated with pharmacological treatments for depression are a primary reason underlying low compliance and, subsequently, low efficacy of treatment. For TMS, however, no significant side effects have been observed, other than mild headaches for a short period of up to a few hours after the treatment, and rare instances of short seizures. The few side effects associated with TMS treatment is considered one of its main advantages. The most common side effect of Deep TMS treatment is short-lasting mild pain or discomfort around the site of coil application. This side effect usually only lasts during the first week of treatment. Other adverse reaction reactions such as jaw and face pain, muscle pain, spasm or twitching, and neck pain were reported as mild or moderate and were also resolved shortly after treatment, as well as seizures in certain patients. The less severe side effects associated with Deep TMS make it an attractive option for patients.

 

Alternatives to pharmacological and TMS-based treatments include ECT, vagal nerve stimulation (VNS), and deep brain stimulation (DBS). ECT, the main psychotherapy alternative to TMS, is a therapy in which patients are administered brief electric currents through the brain. ECT is a non-invasive treatment carried out by a doctor under full anesthesia and muscle relaxant medicines, and patients often undergo partial hospitalization with recovery time lasting from hours to even days. While fewer treatment sessions are required (6-12 sessions) compared to TMS (20-30 sessions), each session lasts approximately an hour compared to the Deep TMS sessions that are about 20 minutes each. While ECT has high proven efficacy (70-75%) for patients with MDD, ECT’s potential for serious side effects, as well as negative stereotypes surrounding the treatment, often cause patients to be reluctant to undergo ECT. ECT affects the entire brain, including parts which do not need treatment, and may cause permanent cognitive damage, including memory loss. ECT may have significant and relatively severe side effects, the most common of which are cognitive and memory loss, changes in blood pressure, muscle pains, nausea, changes in mood, headaches and pain or discomfort. ECT is currently approved for treatment-resistant depression, severe mania, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, aggression or agitation in patients with dementia, and catatonia. It is provided usually in cases of severe MDD, where medicinal treatment is ineffective or impossible and in instances where the depression constitutes a risk to the life of the patient.

 

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VNS and DBS are invasive therapies that can have serious side effects. Both involve implanted devices, which require surgery. In DBS, two electrodes are surgically implanted in the brain and a pulse generator is implanted into the patient’s chest. The electrodes produce electrical impulses that can regulate the electrical activity of the brain. In VNS, a pulse generator is implanted on the upper left side of the chest to stimulate the vagus nerve. VNS and DBS include surgical related risks, such as infection or local damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve, which may lead to permanent voice alteration.

 

Deep TMS for MDD—Our Clinical Trials

 

Phase III Trial Measuring Efficacy and Safety of Deep TMS

 

We completed a Phase III trial at 20 different sites in the United States, Canada, Israel and Germany to test the efficacy and safety of using Deep TMS to treat MDD between 2009 and 2013. The therapeutic effect was clinically meaningful in both patients who failed one to two medications and patients who failed three or more medications, indicating that Deep TMS is effective in an even more treatment-resistant population.

 

Based on these results, we filed a 510(k) application to the FDA for Deep TMS (using BrainsWay D) for MDD. In 2013, the FDA cleared Deep TMS for the treatment of MDD in adult patients who have failed to achieve satisfactory improvement from previous anti-depressant medication treatment in the current episode.

 

(a)Trial Design

 

This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial investigated the efficacy and safety of Deep TMS in 212 treatment-resistant adult MDD patients. Enrolled subjects were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to undergo either monotherapy with active Deep TMS or with a sham. For active Deep TMS treatment, BrainsWay D was used at 120% stimulation intensity and a frequency of 18 Hz.

 

The trial was designed with three phases. The first phase was a wash-out phase in which patients slowly stopped any anti-depressants, mood stabilizers, or antipsychotics that they were previously taking. This phase lasted one to two weeks. The second phase was a four-week acute treatment phase in which patients received daily treatment with Deep TMS or a sham. The treatments were administered in a five-day sequence each week during the second phase. Measurements in respect of this phase were taken in week five. The final phase was a 12-week maintenance-continuation phase in which patients received two treatments per week of Deep TMS or a sham. Measurements in respect of the final phase were taken in week 16.

 

The primary efficacy endpoint was a change in the 21-question Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) at week five (following the end of the acute treatment phase). The secondary efficacy endpoints were response and remission rates at week five. Response was defined as a reduction of at least 50% from baseline HDRS score. Remission was defined as a total HDRS score of less than 10. Tertiary efficacy endpoints included a change in HDRS score from baseline to week 16 and the response and remission rates at week 16. Safety was assessed at every treatment and additional safety evaluations included auditory threshold tests and cognitive evaluations.

 

Inclusion and exclusion criteria required patients to meet the following criteria:

 

Anti-depressant medication-free (following washout period)

 

Failure to respond to one to four anti-depressant trials or not tolerant of at least two anti-depressant treatments in the current episode

 

Diagnosed with MDD with a single or recurrent episode

 

Duration of current episode must be at least one month but less than seven years

 

Score of at least four on the Clinical Global Impression Severity of Illness (CGI-S)

 

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Score of at least 20 on the HDRS

 

No current (or within past year) diagnosis of other Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) Axis I disorders (e.g., PTSD, OCD, other mood disorders, eating disorders, psychotic disorders, or dissociative disorders)

 

No history or increased risk of seizures

 

During analysis, the study results were analyzed in two separate groups: the intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analysis sets. The ITT group included all subjects who met the eligibility criteria and received at least one Deep TMS treatment. Some of these patients, however, were not administered the treatment at the specified stimulation intensity of 120%. The PP patients included all subjects from the ITT group who received the protocol-specified treatment and stimulation intensity. Baseline demographic, clinical and safety assessments were performed on the ITT analysis set. Primary efficacy analysis was performed only on the PP group.

 

(b)Trial Results

 

The primary efficacy endpoint was a change in the HDRS total score from baseline through week five. The change was measured as the slope of a graph of time point versus HDRS score. The estimated slope for the Deep TMS treatment group was −6.39 while the estimated slope for the sham treatment group was −3.28. The difference between groups was statistically significant (p = 0.008) for the PP group.

 

The secondary efficacy endpoints were response and remission rates through week five. As shown in Figure 1, response rates were 38.4% at week five for the Deep TMS group and 21.4% at the same time point for the sham group. Remission rates were 32.6% for the Deep TMS group and 14.6% for the sham group. The difference between groups was statistically significant for both response and remission rates (p = 0.0138 and p = 0.0051, respectively).

 

The tertiary efficacy endpoints were changes in HDRS scores, response, and remission rates at week 16 compared to baseline (see Figure 1 below). The difference in slope between Deep TMS and sham groups was 2.47, which was statistically significant (p = 0.0259). Additionally, the response rates at week 16 were 44.3% for the Deep TMS group and 25.6% for the sham group, which demonstrated a statistically significant difference between the groups (p = 0.0086). Remission rates at week 16 were 31.8% for the Deep TMS group and 22.2% for the sham group, which was a nonsignificant difference between groups (p = 0.1492).

 

Figure 1. Response and Remission Rates for Deep TMS and Sham Groups at Week 5 and Week 16

 

 

 

Source: Levkovitz et al., 2015

 

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We and Yeda have agreed to cooperate in order to seek patent protection with regard to the licensed technology, to defend any patents licensed under the agreement against any infringement claims and to bring claims against third parties who are infringing the patents licensed under the agreement. The patents are to be registered in the name of Yeda, and where possible, at our request, we shall be registered as the holder of the exclusive license for use of the patent. We have agreed to pay all expenses related to registration and defense of the patents under the Yeda license agreement, and in the event that we are not interested in registration of a patent with regard to the licensed technology, Yeda is permitted to register such patent at its expense.

 

In addition, under the Yeda agreement, we recently exercised our exclusive option to in-license certain intellectual property rights owned by Yeda relating to an innovation known as “rotational field TMS” which involves the operation of two orthogonal coils to induce a rotating field in the brain. This method can stimulate neurons in various orientations, and may increase the efficacy of TMS for numerous applications.

 

Under the Yeda license agreement, we have agreed to pay to Yeda royalties as follows:

 

(i)1% of net sales/leases of Deep TMS systems based upon Patent Family A and Patent Family B (which include technology licensed from PHS);

 

(ii)3% for the first $10 million of net sales/leases, and 2% for net sales/leases over $10 million, for all other Deep TMS products based solely on Patent Family C (which is licensed exclusively from Yeda); provided, however, in the event the products are sold to a sub-licensee and are thereafter sold by such sub-licensee, the royalties paid to Yeda will be based on the higher of the net sales/leases of the product by the licensee or the net sales/leases of the sale by the sub-licensee; and

 

(iii)4% of the net cash proceeds that we receive in respect of granting sublicenses or options for sublicenses (8% for Patent Family C).

 

Investigators then performed a subset analysis to understand whether there were statistically significant differences in response to treatment between patients who had failed one to two anti-depressant medications compared to three or more medications. The data for this is shown in Figure 2. For the group of patients who failed one to two medications, the slope was −6.75 for the Deep TMS group compared to −3.52 for the sham group. This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.0327). For the group of patients who failed three or more medications, the slope of HDRS score change was −6.07 for the Deep TMS group compared to −2.97 for the sham group. However, this difference did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.0958).

 

For the group of patients who failed one to two medications, remission rates were 36.6% in the Deep TMS group and 16.7% in the sham group. This was a statistically significant difference (p = 0.032). For the group of patients who failed three or more medications, remission rates were 28.9% for the Deep TMS group and 12.2% for the sham group. This difference was just outside of significance (p = 0.057). The data suggest that Deep TMS treatment can achieve high rates of remission even in patients who have been more resistant to medications.

 

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Figure 2. HDRS Score Change (Slope) and Remission Rates for Deep TMS and Sham Groups in Subpopulations of Patients Who Failed 1 to 2 Medications versus Patients Who Failed 3+ Medications

 

 

 

Source: Levkovitz et al., 2015

 

(c)Safety Results

 

Overall, Deep TMS treatment was safe and well-tolerated by patients. The most common reported side effects within the Deep TMS group are as follows: 26.7% of patients experienced headaches, 5.0% experienced application site pain, and 3.0% experienced application site discomfort. The most common reported side effects within the sham group are as follows: 18.9% of patients experienced headaches, 3.6% experienced insomnia, and 2.7% of patients experienced back pain. One subject experienced a seizure, following excessive consumption of alcohol on the night before treatment that was not reported to the treating physician or operator at the time of treatment. This was considered device-related, albeit with the caveat that withdrawal from alcohol may have led to a reduction of seizure threshold and consequently to this seizure during Deep TMS.

 

Longer-Term Remission and Response

 

As demonstrated our pivotal multicenter study for MDD (as described above) and in another third-party study (Harel et al. (2014)), MDD patients who achieved remission or response after an acute course of Deep TMS treatment of 20 sessions over four weeks were able to sustain the therapeutic effect by continuing to undergo Deep TMS treatment beyond the treatment course. Additionally, our trial and the Harel study showed that among MDD patients who did not achieve a response after an acute course of Deep TMS treatment, the longer such patients continued to undergo Deep TMS therapy, the more likely they were to achieve remission or response. This result was also demonstrated in another study examining the results of our multicenter trial (Yip et al. (2017)), which found that 72.7% of the patients who did not achieve response after an acute course of treatment achieved a response within the next 12 weeks (which involved twice weekly Deep TMS treatment), of which 60.6% achieved response within the first four weeks. These studies suggest that Deep TMS may continue to be effective beyond the standard acute treatment course, potentially broadening its clinical applicability.

 

Deep TMS for OCD

 

Disease Overview

 

OCD is a common, chronic and long-lasting disorder in which a person has uncontrollable, reoccurring thoughts (obsessions) and behaviors (compulsions) that he or she feels the urge to repeat over and over in a manner that can interfere with all aspects of life, such as work, school, and personal relationships.

 

Individuals with OCD exhibit obsessions, compulsions, or both. Obsessions are reoccurring ideas, thoughts, or impulses that cause anxiety that individuals experience excessively and without cause. Compulsions are defined as repetitive behaviors or thoughts that are performed on a strict schedule and appear to have a purpose to the patient exhibiting the behavior or thought. Even if an individual is aware that the thoughts are inappropriate or irrelevant, he or she still might not be able to suppress the thought or the corresponding action. Obsessions tend to be related to contamination, cleanliness, or orderliness, and so compulsions frequently involve cleaning, washing, counting, arranging things in a particular way or repeatedly checking on things. These symptoms can interfere with all aspects of life, such as work, school, and personal relationships. While a wide spectrum of individuals may exhibit OCD-like symptoms, in order to be diagnosed with OCD, he or she must exhibit symptoms that cause severe distress or disrupt a person’s functioning for more than one hour per day.

 

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OCD can severely disrupt an individual’s daily functioning, and many individuals suffering from OCD have a lower quality of life and significantly more mental distress compared to unaffected individuals. A survey of OCD patients found that 73% of patients have weakened family relationships, 62% have weakened friendships, and 40% are chronically underemployed or unemployed. Patients with both OCD and MDD, a frequent combination of disorders, experience the most severely impacted quality-of-life. Additionally, individuals with OCD may feel embarrassment or shame regarding their obsessions and compulsions, contributing to the low treatment-seeking rate of approximately 36%.

 

Market Information

 

Despite variances in estimates of the incidence of the disorder, we believe that a majority of research reports that 2% of the global population suffer from OCD sometime during their lifetime. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, approximately 1% of the adult population in the United States suffered from OCD in the past year. Based on these data, we estimate that approximately 2.24 million adults in the United States suffer from OCD annually. Of these people, we estimate approximately 820,000 patients have sought treatment for OCD and approximately 410,000 are treatment resistant. Of that population, 50.6% of cases are characterized had severe impairment. Another 34.8% of adults with OCD had moderate impairment, and 14.6% had mild impairment. The average age of onset is 19 years old.

 

There is a significant overlap of patients experiencing MDD and those experiencing OCD. Researchers found that MDD was 10 times more prevalent in OCD patients compared to the general population. Additionally, roughly 30% of OCD patients have concurrent OCD and MDD at the time of evaluation and 60 to 80% of OCD patients experience a depressive episode over the course of their lifetime. Frequently, depressive symptoms follow OCD, which suggests that the depressive symptoms occur as a response to the distress caused by OCD.

 

Treatment Options for OCD

 

OCD is generally considered to be one of the most difficult psychiatric diseases to treat. The wide variability in the expression of the disease and the frequent co-morbidity (simultaneous presence) with MDD and other anxiety disorders has complicated the development of an effective, targeted treatment for OCD. The accepted treatment for OCD is medicinal treatment, psychotherapy or a combination of both. However, up to 40% of patients do not respond to these treatments sufficiently.

 

While 60-70% of patients respond or partially respond to treatment with anti-depressant medications such as SRIs or SSRIs, there is a high relapse rate of approximately 60% when medications are stopped. The high relapse rate suggests that pharmacological treatments should be continued over an extended period of time in order to have continued effect. In addition, when testing a new pharmacological treatment on a patient, it takes 10 to 12 weeks to determine if the medication is bringing about clinically significant improvements in symptoms. Over half of patients experience a 25% to 35% decrease in symptoms within 10 to 12 weeks, but symptoms rarely disappear entirely. In addition, 40-60% of OCD patients do not experience a meaningful response to pharmacological treatment.

 

Deterrents to treatment include the often severe side effects of medications. Tricyclic anti-depressant medication, generally considered to be an effective first-line OCD treatment, is known for its particularly strong side effect profile. The medication can cause heightened risk of seizures, weight gain, sleepiness, tremor, dry mouth, nausea, constipation, visual changes, sweating, and sexual dysfunction. All other OCD medications may cause similar side effects, which make it challenging for patients to retain a high quality of life while also working toward disease remission. Upon initiation of pharmacological treatment for OCD, it is critical to closely monitor for development of any adverse effects.

 

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Psychotherapy can be an effective treatment for adults and children with OCD. The treatment may involve controlled exposure to the source of the obsession and practice of refraining from performance of the compulsion. Research shows that certain types of psychotherapy, including cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and other related therapies (e.g., habit reversal training) can be as effective as medication for many individuals. Research also shows that a type of CBT called Exposure and Response Prevention (EX/RP) is effective in reducing compulsive behaviors in OCD, even in people who did not respond well to anti-depressant medication. For many patients EX/RP is the add-on treatment of choice when anti-depressant medication does not effectively treat OCD symptoms.

 

Deep TMS presents a novel, FDA-authorized treatment for OCD. In August 2018, the FDA classified and provided marketing authorization for Deep TMS for OCD as an adjunct treatment (i.e., to be used in conjunction with first-line treatment, such as anti-depressant medication or CBT) for adult patients suffering from OCD. Deep TMS has the unique ability to simultaneously influence a network of specific regions in the brain related to OCD. In addition, it offers a direct effect over deep regions in the brain associated with the disorder. The effects of the treatment begin within a relatively short time period and the duration of the entire treatment plan is shorter compared to a medicinal treatment. Deep TMS therapy for OCD has not demonstrated any systemic side effects, and we believe that Deep TMS presents an attractive alternative to existing treatment options for OCD because anti-depressant medications, due to their side effects, often lead to cessation of treatment by the patient and as a result, relapse of OCD symptoms.

 

The NIMH is supporting research into new treatment approaches for people whose OCD does not respond well to the usual therapies. These new approaches include combination and add-on (augmentation) treatments, as well as novel techniques such as deep brain stimulation (DBS). We believe that our Deep TMS system is the only non-invasive medical device that has obtained FDA marketing authorization to treat OCD.

 

Deep TMS for OCD — Our Clinical Trials

 

Phase III Trial Measuring Efficacy and Safety

 

We completed a Phase III trial at 11 sites in the United States, Israel and Canada to test the efficacy and safety of Deep TMS as a treatment for OCD, which was conducted from 2014 through 2017. In this trial, Deep TMS met its safety and efficacy endpoints and based on these results, we filed a de novo application to the FDA for the Deep TMS (using BrainsWay OCD) in this indication. In August 2018, the FDA classified and granted marketing authorization for Deep TMS as an adjunct treatment for adult patients with OCD to be used together with other first-line therapies.

 

(a)Trial Design

 

This double blind, placebo-controlled trial tested the efficacy and safety of Deep TMS in the treatment of 94 treatment-resistant OCD patients. Enrolled subjects were randomized to either treatment with active Deep TMS or a sham. Deep TMS for OCD was used for all treatment sessions, each of which lasted 18.3-minutes. BrainsWay OCD is specifically used in OCD treatment because it targets the anterior cingulate cortex, a region believed to be affected by OCD.

 

The trial consisted of three phases. The first phase, lasting one to two weeks, was the screening phase, during which anti-depressant medications other than SSRIs were tapered down and washed out (i.e., to make sure that patients take during the trial only medications that were approved by the protocol (such as SSRIs), and that they remained stable on these medications). Following the screening phase, patients entered into a six-week treatment phase. During the first five weeks of the treatment phase, patients received five consecutive sessions per week, followed by one week with four sessions (29 total treatment sessions). The third phase was the follow-up, in which patients were assessed in week six after their final treatment.

 

The primary endpoint measure was the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS), which is a score ranging from 0 to 40, with higher scores indicating greater severity of OCD symptoms. The secondary efficacy endpoint measures were response rate at weeks 6 and 10, partial response rate at weeks 6 and 10, and remission rates at week 6. Secondary safety endpoint measures included the number of adverse events, physical and cognitive evaluations, and vital signs.

 

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Inclusion and exclusion criteria required patients to be diagnosed with OCD, have a YBOCS score of greater than 20, and not be diagnosed with any severe personality disorders.

 

(b)Trial Results

 

After six weeks of treatment, the Deep TMS treatment group had statistically significant improvement in YBOCS score compared to the sham treatment group. The adjusted mean YBOCS score decreased by 6.04 points in the Deep TMS group and by 3.27 points in the sham control group. The difference between the slopes of 2.78 points across six weeks between the treatment arms was statistically significant (p-value: 0.0127), and the effect size at week six assessment was 0.69. As shown in Figure 3, 38.1% of the Deep TMS treatment group achieved a response compared to 11.1% of the sham treatment group. Furthermore, 54.8% of the Deep TMS treatment group achieved a partial response, compared to 26.7% of the sham treatment group. The differences between groups were statistically significant for both response rate (p = 0.0033) and partial response rate (p = 0.0076).

 

Figure 3. Response and Partial Response Rates for Deep TMS and Sham Treatment Groups

 

 

One month after the end of treatment (10 weeks after baseline), patients retained clinical improvement of symptoms, and these measures (YBOCS change and response rate) were significantly better in the Deep TMS group compared to the sham group (p=0.03 for YBOCS change and p=0.0057 for response rate).

 

Figure 4 highlights the continued decrease in unadjusted mean YBOCS score from baseline over the ten-week period.

 

Figure 4. Total YBOCS Score Change from Baseline over 10-Weeks for Deep TMS and Sham Treatment Groups

 

 

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Sales and Marketing

 

United States

 

The United States is our primary and most strategic market, representing approximately 90% of our revenues for the year ended December 31, 2019. We operate in the United States through our wholly owned subsidiary, Brainsway USA Inc, as a direct marketing and sales channel, engaging in the marketing, sale and support and logistics independently in the United States. As of December 31, 2019, we had 37 U.S. employees, including 21 sales and marketing employees and 11 field services and operation employees at our U.S.-based subsidiary.

 

In the United States, we sell or lease Deep TMS systems by one of the following methods: (i) a fixed-fee lease model in which the Deep TMS system is leased to a customer for a fixed annual fee, generally with a term of up to four years, for unlimited use and including warranty and support; (ii) a risk share model in which the Deep TMS system is leased to a customer which pays based on the usage of the system, subject to an annual minimum amount; and (iii) a sales model in which the Deep TMS system is sold to the customer for a fixed purchase price, with additional potential revenue from warranties paid for the system for each year beginning the second year from purchase. These three models are designed to facilitate market penetration by addressing the different needs and risk tolerance among our customer base. In the beginning of 2017, we shifted our sales and marketing focus in the United States from the sales model to the fixed-fee lease model and the risk share model, which we anticipate will increase market acceptance of our Deep TMS systems. While the lease and sales models enable unlimited use of the system by the customer in exchange for higher committed revenues, the risk share model allows for a lower market entry price with higher potential upside to us for customers that exceed the contracted minimum usage amount.

 

As of December 31, 2019, approximately 46% of our Deep TMS systems installed base for MDD utilized the fixed-fee lease model, approximately 41% utilized the sales model and approximately 13% utilized our risk share model. We have started, and expect to continue, to commercialize Deep TMS for OCD based solely on the risk share model, which charges per session and per treatment, in an effort to achieve greater market acceptance for that indication.

 

The training for operation of our Deep TMS system is not complex and requires about a day of training which includes theoretical learning and a number of practical hours of practice of placing the helmet on the head of the patient and providing treatment. Deep TMS for OCD requires additional training on triggering the patient’s OCD symptoms prior to administration of the treatment.

 

After installation of our system, we offer high quality service, technical support and repair to customers. Customers leasing the device (whether fixed lease or risk share model lease) receive support including maintenance and warranty for repairs and replacements during the full term of the lease. In contrast, customers purchasing the device receive this support for the first year following purchase. Thereafter, the warranty and support can be extended on a yearly basis by paying a set fee.

 

Our marketing activities include, amongst other things, corporate presence in major commercial and professional conferences, press releases, advertising, participation in open house and other similar events, social media, Search Engine Optimization (SEO) and other internet-based promotional campaigns and release of both direct and online marketing materials, which are all designed to increase the use of our systems for the authorized indications.

 

Outside of the United States

 

Approximately 10% of our revenues for the year ended December 31, 2019 was generated outside of the United States. A significant part of our sales outside the United States are made indirectly with local distributors and agents. Most of our sales outside the United States are made only via the purchase model, although we lease some of our Deep TMS systems in France, Mexico and Israel. Our primary focus is on selling to hospitals, medical centers and clinics dealing with the treatment of psychiatric neurological and addiction illnesses and disorders.

 

Our non-U.S. sales are managed both by our internal team in Israel and by local agents in various countries. In Israel, we do not use a distributor and our sales team distributes directly to our customers. We have exclusive distribution agreements in Japan, South Korea, Thailand, Taiwan, the Philippines Ecuador and Costa Rica and are seeking new distribution partners for other strategic markets including Mexico and Brazil which had been serviced by a previous distributor. Under our distribution agreements, the distributor receives an exclusive right to distribute the systems of our Deep TMS systems in the relevant territory. The exclusivity is contingent upon fulfillment of certain quotas, or pre-defined minimum orders of a number of systems per period. We have the right to cancel the exclusivity of the distributor if the distributor fails to fulfill the set targets. The distributor is required to pay us for each Deep TMS system installed in the territory. In some instances, we reserve the right to engage directly with the customer in which case it pays the distributor a commission derived from the transaction with the customer.

 

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The duration of these agreements varies between distributors and ranges between three and ten years. In territories in which we use a local distributor, the distributor is generally responsible for obtaining and maintaining the regulatory approvals required for marketing of Deep TMS systems in the territory and for the installation, training and maintenance of the systems in the relevant territory. In addition to the regulatory approval requirements, the distributor is also required to implement efforts to obtain reimbursement and or coverage, as well as to market Deep TMS systems in the territory, including, in some cases, holding the marketing authorization in their name. For example, we recently obtained regulatory approval with the PMDA in Japan, which is a precondition to receiving reimbursement coverage under the Japanese National Health Insurance Plan. We are working through our Japanese distributor with the relevant bodies in Japan to update the local society guidelines to include Deep TMS in order to obtain such coverage.

 

We aim to increase our marketing and sales outside the United States by means of distributors in other countries, and we are currently seeking additional distribution agreements. Marketing and the success of penetration in each country is contingent on a variety of factors, including, among others, the existence of regulatory approvals, the availability of reimbursement, the support of key opinion leaders and the ease and ultimate success of market participants in adopting our technology.

 

Our Clinical Pipeline

 

Set forth below is a table presenting the current status of our clinical pipeline:

 

 

 

Smoking Cessation

 

Smoking is one of the leading causes of death in developed countries. The addiction to nicotine, similar to the addiction to drugs and alcohol, activates the limbic system and causes uncontrollable desire to smoke. Approximately 38 million U.S. adults smoke cigarettes, and 480,000 die from smoking each year. The global smoking cessation market is estimated at $3 billion per annum, and this market value is anticipated to increase. The most common smoking cessation option is nicotine replacement therapy, which is the affixing of patches to the body or the chewing of gum which secrete decreasing concentrations of nicotine in a manner which may assist physical withdrawal. However, this method does not treat the psychological-behavioral component of the addiction, and therefore there is a high probability that the patient will return to smoking if nicotine patch treatment is discontinued.

 

We recently concluded with positive results a pivotal multicenter trial assessing the safety and efficacy of Deep TMS as an aid in smoking cessation in adults suffering from chronic smoking addiction.

 

The trial was a randomized, double-blind, multicenter study designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Deep TMS as an aid in smoking cessation in heavy smokers. The multicenter study was conducted at 14 sites, primarily in the U.S. All of the subjects in the study had at least one prior unsuccessful attempt to quit smoking before being enrolled in the trial. Over 80% of the subjects had undertaken at least two prior unsuccessful attempts, and over 25% had undertaken at least five prior unsuccessful attempts. 

 

Participants received three weeks of daily Deep TMS (or sham) treatment followed by one session per week for three more weeks (for a total of 18 treatments over six weeks). Assessment visits, including questionnaires and the collection of urine samples, were performed weekly from week two until week six. In addition, subjects were asked to keep a record of their smoking behavior on a diary card.

 

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Only participants who reported zero cigarettes in their diary card at the week six assessment were invited to an additional follow-up visit three months following the completion of the Deep TMS (or sham) treatment. Among the participants who managed to meet the 4-week CQR within the first 6 weeks of the study, 73% in the active group and 60% in the sham group did not return to smoking at all by the time of this final follow up visit.

 

The trial was a randomized, double-blind, multicenter study designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Deep TMS treatment as an aid in reducing cigarette smoking in individuals suffering from chronic smoking addiction. It was conducted at 14 sites, primarily in the U.S., and enrolled 262 eligible subjects randomized into two groups: an active treatment group treated with our proprietary H4 coil targeting addiction-related brain circuits, and a sham (placebo) control group. The primary endpoint of the study was a comparison between the two groups of the four-week continuous quit rate (CQR), representing abstinence during a consecutive four-week period. Weekly abstinence was defined as a subject’s self-report (in a diary) of no smoking, confirmed by urine tests indicating abstinence from smoking. The participants in the study were highly addicted to smoking, with a history of smoking on average for over 26 years and multiple failed attempts to quit.

 

Of the 168 participants in the study who actually completed three weeks of Deep TMS or sham treatment, plus the mandatory additional three weeks of follow-up (reaching the six-week endpoint), the CQR was 28.4% in the treatment group compared to 11.7% in the sham group (p=0.0063).  The primary endpoint was defined based on the CQR among those subjects who received at least one Deep TMS (or sham) treatment session and had at least one post-baseline assessment, even if not completing the treatment period.  Within this cohort (which consisted of 234 participants and included dropouts) the CQR was 19.4% in the treatment group and 8.7% in the sham group (p= 0.0174).

 

An important secondary endpoint was the reduction in the number of cigarettes smoked. At baseline, the average number of cigarettes smoked per week was 132 for the active group and 127 for the sham group. After 3 weeks of treatment, the average number of cigarettes smoked per week was reduced to 38 in the active group and 57 in the sham group (p= 0.0018, active vs. sham). By the sixth week of the study, the average number of cigarettes smoked per week declined to 31 for the active group and 48 for the sham group (p=0.0125, active vs. sham).

 

Additional Potential Deep TMS Applications

 

Our primary focus for additional potential applications for Deep TMS are smoking cessation, opioid addiction and indications in neurology, including fatigue in MS and post-stroke rehabilitation. The U.S. patient population for opioid addition, MS and post-stroke rehabilitation is approximately 2 million, 1 million and 795,000, respectively.

 

We have previously recruited patients as part of a Phase III clinical trial in the U.S. and other countries of Deep TMS for bipolar disorder. We have recently ceased actively recruiting patients for this trial in order to focus our strategy on our proposed clinical trials for opioid addiction, fatigue in MS and post-stroke rehabilitation. We have also conducted double-blind, placebo-controlled trials evaluating Deep TMS for Alzheimer’s disease (in Israel and Italy), autism spectrum disorders such as Asperger syndrome (in Australia), alcohol addiction (in Israel and Sweden), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (in Israel), Parkinson’s disease (in Israel and Italy) and chronic neuropathic pain (in Japan, Italy, France and Norway). We believe further clinical study in these indications could pave the way for marketing authorizations for new indications in the United States and expand the potential for treatment to a wider range of patients. Factors that contribute to how we prioritize the pursuit of certain clinical studies include, but are not limited to, the strength of our feasibility clinical data, market potential, required budget and ease of conduct of the trial. However, there is no guarantee that we will ultimately be successful in obtaining marketing clearance for the indications prioritized for further study.

 

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Competition

 

The industry for the treatment of mental health diseases, disorders and other conditions is intensely competitive. Our currently marketed Deep TMS System is, and any future indications we develop and commercialize will be, subject to intense competition. Our Deep TMS system for MDD competes with existing anti-depressant drugs, other TMS therapies and to a lesser degree, more invasive treatments such as ECT, VNS and DBS. Our Deep TMS system for OCD also competes with existing medications and other available treatments, although faces less direct competition as we are the only FDA-approved TMS product for this indication. The industry in which we operate is subject to rapid change and is highly sensitive to the introduction of new products or other market activities of current or new industry participants. Our competitors may be larger and have greater resources than us, and may develop treatment options that receive faster regulatory approvals and/or are more rapidly adopted by clinicians and patients. Our competitors compete with us on the basis of efficacy and safety, regulatory approvals, price and availability of reimbursement from third-party payers, ease of use/administration of the treatment option, and reputation and market trends. Key competitive factors affecting the commercial success Deep TMS System are likely to be efficacy, safety and tolerability, reliability, convenience and time frame of administration, market acceptance of our products relative to alternative treatments and reimbursement.

 

Competitors that sell other forms of TMS therapy for MDD include Neuronetics, Magventure, Magstim, MAG & More, Cloud TMS and Nexstim, that compete directly with us. Their systems are based on focal TMS coils and are FDA-cleared for MDD only, although there is one other company (eNeura) that is marketing a device that is FDA-cleared for treating pain associated with migraine headaches using single-pulse TMS. By contrast, our unique Deep TMS H-Coils are designed to address a number of different brain disorders. None of our competitors in the MDD market is currently FDA-cleared for an OCD indication, and thus we are the only company currently with marketing authorizations for MDD and OCD.

 

We also face competition from pharmaceutical and other companies that develop competitive products, such as anti-depressant medications (including but not limited to a nasal spray utilizing the drug esketamine which was recently approved by the FDA for use in conjunction with an oral antidepressant), with certain competitive advantages such as widespread market acceptance, ease of patient use and well-established reimbursement. In addition, we may face competition from ketamine, which is used as an anesthetic to treat a variety of brain disorders. Our commercial opportunity could be reduced or eliminated if these competitors develop and commercialize anti-depressant medications or other treatments that are safer or more effective than Deep TMS. At any time, these and other potential market entrants may develop treatment alternatives that may render our products uncompetitive or less competitive.

 

We are also subject to competition from invasive neuromodulation therapies such as ECT, VNS and DBS. Major players in this space include Medtronic, St. Jude’s Medical, LivaNova and Boston Scientific Corporation. For example, the VNS system developed by Cyberonics (now LivaNova) is FDA-approved for MDD.

 

In addition, we may face competition in the future from other non-invasive treatments for MDD. Examples of non-invasive treatment options in early development include low-intensity and low-frequency ultrasound (LIFU), transcranial laser therapy and infrared therapy. We cannot predict whether any of these or any other treatment options will succeed in clinical trials or be commercially marketable in the future.

 

Intellectual Property

 

See Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects – C. Research and Development, Patents and Licenses.”

 

Government Grants

 

As of December 31, 2019, we have received grants from the IIA in an aggregate amount of approximately $12.7 million. We are currently required to pay 3% royalties of sales of our Deep TMS products, which payment obligations do not currently exceed the amount of the grant received (in U.S. dollars), plus interest at an annual rate equal to the LIBOR rate. As of December 31, 2019, we have paid royalties to the IIA in an aggregate amount of approximately $2.0 million (including amounts in respect of accrued interest), with remaining outstanding royalties of up to $12.9 million.

 

In addition, we received from MAGNET approvals for grants in an aggregate amount of NIS 8.2 million (approximately $2.4 million based on the NIS to USD exchange rate as of December 31, 2019). There is no requirement to repay the grants or pay royalties thereon.

 

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Manufacturing and Supply

 

We manage all aspects of product supply through our Jerusalem-based operations team. We manufacture our proprietary H-Coils and outsource the manufacture of certain components, including the stimulator, the computer controlling the stimulator, cooling system, the helmet and the arm of the helmet, which are produced and tested to our specifications. We assemble Deep TMS systems at our headquarters in Jerusalem and in New Jersey. In some cases, we rely on third-party providers to provide components used in existing products and we expect to continue to do so for future products. Our production activities also include manually assembling certain components of our devices for all required clinical and commercial quantities, and the integration of all components into a functioning Deep TMS system.

 

We manage our arrangements with our third-party manufacturers and suppliers to adjust delivery schedules and quantities of components to match our changing manufacturing requirements. We forecast our component needs based on historical trends, current utilization patterns and sales forecasts of future demand. We establish our relationships with our third-party manufacturers and suppliers through supplier contracts and purchase orders. In most cases, these supplier relationships may be terminated by either party upon short notice. Magstim (UK) has historically supplied us with stimulators, and it is anticipated that they will continue to be used a source for older generation systems which do not include our newer FDA-cleared stimulator.

 

In order to mitigate against the risks related to a single-source of supply, we qualify alternative suppliers when possible, maximize the use of commercial, off the shelf components and materials, minimize specialized or proprietary manufacturing processes, and develop contingency plans for responding to disruptions, including maintaining adequate inventory of any critical components. To date, we have not experienced material delays in obtaining any of our components, nor has the ready supply of finished products to our customers or clinicians been adversely affected by component supply issues.

 

We are subject to extensive governmental regulation in connection with the manufacture of our devices. We must ensure that all of the processes, methods and equipment are compliant with the current Quality System Regulations (QSR) for devices on an ongoing basis, mandated by the FDA and other regulatory authorities, and must conduct extensive audits of vendors, contract laboratories and suppliers. We comply with such regulatory requirements. Certain of our foreign marketing authorizations requires compliance of said manufacturing process with the ISO 13485 standard, with which we are compliant.

 

Reimbursement

 

We estimate that over 90% of the total private insurer adult covered lives in the United States have coverage for reimbursement of MDD treatment with Deep TMS, available after three to four failures of anti-depressant medications. In addition, our MDD treatment with Deep TMS may be eligible for reimbursement from Medicare, and is expected to be available after four failures of anti-depressant medications and subject to the satisfaction of other clinical criteria. Typically, payors (including Medicare) will provide reimbursement for up to 36 treatment sessions of Deep TMS for MDD, although the maximum number of covered sessions varies by insurer and/or location. Deep TMS for OCD is not currently eligible for reimbursement. However, there is currently an out-of-pocket market for our Deep TMS systems for OCD, and we are working to broaden the scope of reimbursement coverage for Deep TMS to include OCD treatment, based on a demonstration of the reasonableness and necessity of the treatment through clinical data.

 

The sales or lease of a medical device utilized for in-office medical treatments depend, in part, on the extent to which such treatments using that device will be covered by third-party payers, such as government health care programs (e.g., Medicare), private insurance and managed healthcare organizations. Even if a third-party payer covers a particular treatment, the resulting reimbursement payment rates may not be adequate to cover a provider’s cost to purchase such medical device or ensure that purchase or lease will be profitable for the provider. Additionally, patients who are treated in-office for a medical condition generally rely on third-party payers to reimburse all or part of the costs associated with the treatment and may be unwilling to undergo such treatment in the absence of coverage and adequate reimbursement.

 

Reimbursement by a third-party payer may depend upon a number of factors, including the third-party payer’s determination that a treatment is: neither experimental nor investigational; safe, effective, and medically necessary; appropriate for the specific patient; cost-effective; supported by peer reviewed medical journals; and included in clinical practice guidelines.

 

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Physician reimbursement under Medicare generally is based on a defined fee schedule, or the Physician Fee Schedule, through which payment amounts are determined by the relative values of the service rendered in a physician office setting or by a physician in a facility setting. Medicare coverage for TMS also has specific patient history requirements. Medicare coverage for Deep TMS generally requires four failures of anti-depressant medications.

 

In the United States, there is no uniform policy of coverage and reimbursement among private third-party payers. Reimbursement rates from private payers vary depending on the procedure performed, the commercial payer, contract terms, and other factors. Private third-party payers often rely upon Medicare coverage policy and payment limitations in setting their own reimbursement policies, but also have their own methods and approval process apart from Medicare coverage and reimbursement determinations. Private insurance coverage for Deep TMS generally requires three to four failures of anti-depressant medications.

 

Coverage and reimbursement for treatments can differ significantly from payer to payer. Decisions regarding the extent of coverage and amount of reimbursement to be provided for an in-office treatment are made on a plan-by-plan basis. One payer’s determination to provide coverage for a specific treatment does not assure that other payers will also provide coverage and adequate reimbursement.

 

In addition, the U.S. federal government and state legislatures have continued to implement cost containment programs, including price controls and restrictions on coverage and reimbursement. Governmental and private insurers are increasingly challenging the price, examining the medical necessity and reviewing the cost-efficacy of medical services. Adoption of price controls and cost containment measures by any such payers, and adoption of more restrictive policies in jurisdictions with existing controls and measures, could limit our market opportunity and reduce our revenues.

 

Private insurers currently covers only treatments using our Deep TMS system for MDD, and does not currently cover our Deep TMS therapy for OCD or therapies currently under development for other indications. We are actively working to broaden the scope of reimbursement coverage for Deep TMS therapy to include OCD based on the novelty of the technology, unmet clinical need and the demonstrated efficacy and safety profile of the treatment. We believe that our recent FDA marketing authorization of Deep TMS for OCD will help us to obtain reimbursement for that indication, but we can provide no assurance that we can obtain the same level of reimbursement coverage for OCD as we have for MDD.

 

We are also working to include Deep TMS in additional insurance coverages in the United States and in other jurisdictions in which we operate. In regions where we have appointed a local distributor, usually it is an obligation of the distributor under the distribution agreement to obtain reimbursement coverage for Deep TMS in the relevant territory on our behalf. For example, through our Japanese distributor, we recently obtained regulatory approval with the PMDA in Japan, which is a precondition to receiving reimbursement coverage under the Japanese National Health Insurance Plan. We are working through our Japanese distributor with the relevant bodies in Japan to update the local society guidelines to include Deep TMS in order to obtain such coverage.

 

Government Regulation

 

United States

 

Our products and our operations are subject to extensive regulation by the FDA and other federal and state authorities in the United States, as well as comparable authorities in foreign jurisdictions. Our products are subject to regulation as medical devices under the U.S. Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FDCA), as implemented and enforced by the FDA. The FDA regulates the development, design, non-clinical and clinical research, manufacturing, safety, efficacy, labeling, packaging, storage, installation, servicing, recordkeeping, premarket clearance or approval, import, export, adverse event reporting, advertising, promotion, marketing and distribution, and import and export of medical devices to ensure that medical devices distributed domestically are safe and effective for their intended uses and otherwise meet the requirements of the FDCA.

 

In addition to U.S. regulations, we are subject to a variety of regulations in other jurisdictions governing clinical trials and commercial sales and distribution of our products. Whether or not we obtain FDA clearance or approval for a product, we must obtain authorization before commencing clinical trials or obtain marketing authorization or approval of our products under the comparable regulatory authorities of countries outside of the United States. The marketing authorization process varies from country to country and the time may be longer or shorter than that required for FDA clearance or approval.

 

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FDA Premarket Clearance and Approval Requirements

 

Unless an exemption applies, each medical device commercially distributed in the United States requires either FDA clearance of a 510(k) premarket notification or premarket approval, or PMA. Under the FDCA, medical devices are classified into one of three classes—Class I, Class II or Class III—depending on the degree of risk associated with each medical device and the extent of manufacturer and regulatory control needed to ensure its safety and efficacy. Class I includes devices with the lowest risk to the patient and are those for which safety and efficacy can be assured by adherence to the FDA’s general controls for medical devices, which include compliance with the applicable portions of the QSR facility registration and product listing, reporting of adverse medical events, and truthful and non-misleading labeling, advertising, and promotional materials. Class II devices are subject to the FDA’s general controls, and special controls as deemed necessary by the FDA to ensure the safety and efficacy of the device. These special controls can include performance standards, postmarket surveillance, patient registries, special labeling requirements, premarket data requirements and FDA guidance documents. While most Class I devices are exempt from the 510(k) premarket notification requirement, manufacturers of most Class II devices are required to submit to the FDA a premarket notification under Section 510(k) of the FDCA requesting permission to commercially distribute the device. The FDA’s permission to commercially distribute a device subject to a 510(k) premarket notification is generally known as 510(k) clearance. Devices deemed by the FDA to pose the greatest risks, such as life-sustaining, life-supporting or some implantable devices, or devices that have a new intended use, or use advanced technology that is not substantially equivalent to that of a legally marketed device, are placed in Class III, requiring approval of a PMA.

 

Our Deep TMS system is classified as a Class II medical device. For MDD, we obtained FDA marketing authorization through the 510(k) clearance process. For OCD, we obtained FDA marketing authorization through the de novo classification process. Subsequent changes made to our Deep TMS system will be made through one or more of the various existing FDA review pathways.

 

510(k) Marketing Clearance Pathway

 

To obtain 510(k) clearance, we must submit to the FDA a premarket notification submission demonstrating that the proposed device is “substantially equivalent” to a predicate device already on the market. A predicate device is a legally marketed device that is not subject to premarket approval, i.e., a device that was legally marketed prior to May 28, 1976 (pre-amendments device) and for which a PMA is not required, a device that has been reclassified from Class III to Class II or I, or a device that was found substantially equivalent through the 510(k) process. The FDA’s 510(k) clearance process usually takes nine to 12 months, but may take significantly longer. The FDA may require additional information, including clinical data, to make a determination regarding substantial equivalence. If the FDA agrees that the device is substantially equivalent to a predicate device currently on the market, it will grant 510(k) clearance to commercially market the device. If the FDA determines that the device is “not substantially equivalent” to a previously cleared device, the device is automatically designated as a Class III device. The device sponsor must then fulfill more rigorous PMA requirements, or can request a risk-based classification determination for the device in accordance with the de novo classification process, which is a route to market for novel medical devices that are low to moderate risk and are not substantially equivalent to a predicate device.

 

Premarket Approval Process

 

A PMA application must be submitted if the medical device is in Class III (although the FDA has the discretion to continue to allow certain pre-amendment Class III devices to use the 510(k) process) or cannot be cleared through the 510(k) process. A PMA application must be supported by, among other things, extensive technical, pre-clinical, clinical trials, manufacturing and labeling data to demonstrate to the FDA’s satisfaction the safety and effectiveness of the device.

 

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After a PMA application is submitted and filed, the FDA begins an in-depth review of the submitted information, which typically takes between one and three years, but may take significantly longer. During this review period, the FDA may request additional information or clarification of information already provided. Also, during the review period, an advisory panel of experts from outside the FDA will usually be convened to review and evaluate the application and provide recommendations to the FDA as to the approvability of the device. In addition, the FDA will conduct a pre-approval inspection of the manufacturing facility to ensure compliance with the QSR, which imposes extensive design development, testing, control, documentation and other quality assurance procedures in the design and manufacturing process. The FDA may approve a PMA application with post-approval conditions intended to ensure the safety and effectiveness of the device including, among other things, restrictions on labeling, promotion, sale and distribution and collection of long-term follow-up data from patients in the clinical study that supported approval. Failure to comply with the conditions of approval can result in materially adverse enforcement action, including the loss or withdrawal of the approval. New PMA applications or supplements are required for significant modifications to the manufacturing process, labeling of the product and design of a device that is approved through the PMA process. PMA supplements often require submission of the same type of information as an original PMA application, except that the supplement is limited to information needed to support any changes from the device covered by the original PMA application, and may not require as extensive clinical data or the convening of an advisory panel.

 

De novo Classification Process

 

Medical device types that the FDA has not previously classified as Class I, II, or III are automatically classified as Class III regardless of the level of risk they pose. The Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 established a new route to market for low to moderate risk medical devices that are automatically placed into Class III due to the absence of a substantially equivalent predicate device, called the “Request for Evaluation of Automatic Class III Designation,” or the de novo classification process. This process allows a manufacturer whose novel device is automatically classified as Class III to request down-classification of its medical device into Class I or Class II on the basis that the device presents low or moderate risk, rather than requiring the submission and approval of a PMA application. Prior to the enactment of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act, or FDASIA, in July 2012, a medical device could only be eligible for de novo classification if the manufacturer first submitted a 510(k) premarket notification and received a determination from the FDA that the device was not substantially equivalent to a predicate device. FDASIA streamlined the de novo classification pathway by permitting manufacturers to request de novo classification directly without first submitting a 510(k) premarket notification to the FDA and receiving a not substantially equivalent determination. We obtained marketing authorization for the OCD indication for our system using the direct de novo request classification process. We have used the 510(k) clearance process to obtain authorization from the FDA for changes to our marketed Deep TMS system, including our proprietary stimulator.

 

Clinical Trials

 

A clinical trial is typically required to support a PMA application or de novo classification, and is sometimes required for a 510(k) premarket notification. Clinical trials for significant risk devices generally require submission of an application for an Investigational Device Exemption, or IDE, to the FDA. The IDE application must be supported by appropriate data, such as animal and laboratory testing results, showing that it is safe to test the device in humans and that the investigational protocol is scientifically sound. The IDE application must be approved in advance by the FDA for a specified number of patients, unless the product is deemed a non-significant risk device and eligible for more abbreviated IDE requirements. Clinical trials for a significant risk device may begin once the IDE application is approved by the FDA as well as the appropriate institutional review boards (IRBs), at the clinical trial sites, and the informed consent of the patients participating in the clinical trial is obtained. After a trial begins, the FDA may place it on hold or terminate it if, among other reasons, it concludes that the clinical subjects are exposed to an unacceptable health risk. Any trials we conduct must be conducted in accordance with FDA regulations as well as other federal regulations and state laws concerning human subject protection and privacy. Moreover, the results of a clinical trial may not be sufficient to obtain clearance or approval of the product.

 

Changes to Marketed Devices

 

After a device receives 510(k) marketing clearance, or de novo classification, any modification that could significantly affect its safety or efficacy, or that would constitute a major change or modification in its intended use, will require a new 510(k) marketing clearance or, depending on the modification, a de novo classification or PMA. The FDA requires each manufacturer to determine whether the proposed change requires submission of a 510(k) or a PMA in the first instance, but the FDA can review any such decision and disagree with a manufacturer’s determination. Many minor modifications today are accomplished by a manufacturer documenting the change in an internal letter-to-file. The letter-to-file is in lieu of submitting a new 510(k) to obtain clearance for every change. The FDA can always review these letters to file in an inspection. If the FDA disagrees with a manufacturer’s determination, the FDA can require the manufacturer to cease marketing and/or request the recall of the modified device until 510(k) marketing clearance or PMA is obtained. Also, in these circumstances, the manufacturer may be subject to significant regulatory fines or penalties.

 

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Postmarket Regulation

 

After a device is cleared or approved for marketing, numerous and extensive regulatory requirements continue to apply. These include:

 

establishment registration and device listing with the FDA;

 

QSR requirements, which require manufacturers, including third-party manufacturers, to follow stringent design, testing, control, documentation and other quality assurance procedures during all aspects of the design, manufacturing and distribution process;

 

labeling and marketing regulations, which require that promotion is truthful, not misleading, fairly balanced and provide adequate directions for use and that all claims are substantiated, and also prohibit the promotion of products for unapproved or “off-label” uses and impose other restrictions on labeling;

 

FDA guidance on off-label dissemination of information and responding to unsolicited requests for information;

 

clearance or approval of product modifications to 510(k)-cleared devices that could significantly affect safety or efficacy or that would constitute a major change in intended use of one of our cleared devices;

 

medical device reporting regulations, which require that a manufacturer report to the FDA if a device it markets may have caused or contributed to a death or serious injury, or has malfunctioned and the device or a similar device that it markets would be likely to cause or contribute to a death or serious injury or serious adverse events, if the malfunction were to recur;

 

correction, removal and recall reporting regulations, which require that manufacturers report to the FDA field corrections and product recalls or removals if undertaken to reduce a risk to health posed by the device or to remedy a violation of the FDCA that may present a risk to health;

 

complying with regulations requiring Unique Device Identifiers (UDI) on devices and also requiring the submission of certain information about each device to the FDA’s Global Unique Device Identification Database (GUDID);

 

the FDA’s recall authority, whereby the agency can order device manufacturers to recall from the market a product that is in violation of governing laws and regulations; and

 

postmarket surveillance activities and regulations, which apply when deemed by the FDA to be necessary to protect the public health or to provide additional safety and efficacy data for the device.

 

We may be subject to similar foreign laws that may include applicable postmarketing requirements such as safety surveillance and risk-benefit analysis. Our manufacturing processes are required to comply with the applicable portions of the QSR, which cover the methods and the facilities and controls for the design, manufacture, testing, production, processes, controls, quality assurance, labeling, packaging, distribution, installation and servicing of finished devices intended for human use. The QSR also requires, among other things, maintenance of a device master file, device history file, and complaint files. As a manufacturer, we are subject to periodic scheduled or unscheduled inspections by the FDA. Our failure to maintain compliance with the QSR requirements could result in the shut-down of, or restrictions on, our manufacturing operations and the recall or seizure of our products. The discovery of previously unknown problems with any of our products, including unanticipated adverse events or adverse events of increasing severity or frequency, whether resulting from the use of the device within the scope of its clearance or off-label by a physician in the practice of medicine, could result in restrictions on the device, including the removal of the product from the market or voluntary or mandatory device recalls.

 

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The FDA has broad regulatory compliance and enforcement powers. If the FDA determines that we failed to comply with applicable regulatory requirements, it can take a variety of compliance or enforcement actions, which may result in any of the following sanctions:

 

warning letters, untitled letters, fines, injunctions, consent decrees and civil penalties;

 

recalls, withdrawals, or administrative detention or seizure of our products;

 

operating restrictions or partial suspension or total shutdown of production;

 

refusing or delaying requests for 510(k) marketing clearance or PMA approvals of new products or modified products;

 

withdrawing 510(k) clearances or PMA approvals that have already been granted;

 

refusal to grant export or import approvals for our products; or

 

criminal prosecution.

 

U.S. and Foreign Healthcare Laws and Compliance Requirements

 

Healthcare providers, physicians and third-party payers play a primary role in the recommendation, prescription and payment for medical treatments. A medical device manufacturer’s arrangements with third-party payers, providers and patients may expose it to broadly applicable fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations that may affect its business or the financial arrangements and relationships through which it markets, sells and distributes its products. Even if a medical device manufacturer does not control referrals of healthcare services or bill directly to Medicare, Medicaid or other third-party payers, federal and state healthcare laws and regulations are applicable to its business. In addition, portions of our business may be subject to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA). To the extent we provide any covered entity customers with services that involve the use or disclosure of protected health information (PHI) we may be required to enter into business associate agreements. Business associates are also directly liable for compliance with HIPAA. The laws that may affect a medical device manufacturer’s ability to operate include, but are not limited to:

 

the federal healthcare Anti-Kickback Statute, which prohibits, among other things, persons and entities from knowingly and willfully soliciting, receiving, offering or providing remuneration (broadly interpreted to include anything of value), directly or indirectly, overtly or covertly, in cash or in kind, to induce or reward either the referral of an individual for, or the purchase, lease, order, or arrange for or recommend a good or service for which payment may be made, in whole or in part, under a federal healthcare program, such as Medicare and Medicaid. The government can establish a violation of the Anti-Kickback Statute without proving that a person or entity had actual knowledge of the law or a specific intent to violate. Moreover, the government may assert that a claim for reimbursement that includes items resulting from a violation of the federal healthcare Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the federal civil False Claims Act. Although there are a number of statutory exceptions and regulatory safe harbors to the federal healthcare Anti-Kickback Statute protecting certain common business arrangements and activities from prosecution or regulatory sanctions, the exceptions and safe harbors are drawn narrowly. Practices that involve remuneration to those who prescribe, purchase, or recommend medical device products, including discounts, or engaging individuals as speakers, consultants, or advisors, may be subject to scrutiny if they do not fit squarely within an exception or safe harbor. Our practices may not in all cases meet all of the criteria for safe harbor protection from anti-kickback liability. Moreover, there are no safe harbors for many common practices, such as reimbursement support programs, educational or research grants, or charitable donations;

 

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the federal civil False Claims Act (FCA), which prohibits, among other things, individuals or entities from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, false or fraudulent claims for payment of federal government funds, and knowingly making, using or causing to be made or used a false record or statement material to a false or fraudulent claim to avoid, decrease or conceal an obligation to pay money to the federal government. Private individuals, commonly known as “whistleblowers,” can bring FCA qui tam actions, on behalf of the government and themselves, and may share in amounts paid by the entity to the government in recovery or settlement. False Claims Act liability is potentially significant in the healthcare industry because the statute provides for treble damages and mandatory penalties of $11,181 to $22,363 per false or fraudulent claim or statement. Many pharmaceutical and medical device manufacturers have been investigated and have reached substantial settlements under the FCA in connection with alleged off label promotion of their products and allegedly providing free products to customers with the expectation that the customers would bill federal health care programs for the product. In addition, a claim including items or services resulting from a violation of the federal healthcare Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the FCA. In addition, manufacturers can be held liable under the FCA even when they do not submit claims directly to government payers if they are deemed to “cause” the submission of false or fraudulent claims. There are also criminal penalties, including imprisonment and criminal fines, for making or presenting false, fictitious or fraudulent claims to the federal government;
   
HIPAA, which prohibits and imposes criminal liability for, among other things, knowingly and willfully executing or attempting to execute a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program, including private third party payers, knowingly and willfully embezzling or stealing from a healthcare benefit program, willfully obstructing a criminal investigation of a healthcare offense, and knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up a material fact or making any materially false, fictitious or fraudulent statement or representation, or making or using any false writing or document knowing the same to contain any materially false, fictitious or fraudulent statement or entry in connection with the delivery of or payment for healthcare benefits, items or services. Similar to the federal healthcare Anti-Kickback Statute, a person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it to have committed a violation;
   
HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH), and their implementing regulations, which imposes privacy, security, transmission and breach reporting obligations with respect to individually identifiable health information upon entities subject to the law, including health plans, healthcare clearinghouses and certain healthcare providers and their respective business associates that perform services on their behalf that involve individually identifiable health information. HITECH also created new tiers of civil monetary penalties, amended HIPAA to make civil and criminal penalties directly applicable to business associates, and gave state attorneys general new authority to file civil actions for damages or injunctions in federal courts to enforce the HIPAA laws and seek attorneys’ fees and costs associated with pursuing federal civil actions;
   
the federal Physician Payments Sunshine Act, created under the PPACA, which requires certain manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologics and medical supplies reimbursed under Medicare, Medicaid, or the Children’s Health Insurance Program (with certain exceptions) to report annually to the United States Department of Health and Human Services information related to payments or other transfers of value made to physicians (defined to include doctors, dentists, optometrists, podiatrists and chiropractors) and teaching hospitals, as well as ownership and investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members. Beginning in 2022, applicable manufacturers also will be required to report information regarding payments and transfers of value provided to physician assistants, nurse practitioners, clinical nurse specialists, certified nurse anesthetists, and certified nurse-midwives; and
   
foreign and state law equivalents of each of the above federal laws, such as anti-kickback and false claims laws, that may impose similar or more prohibitive restrictions, and may apply to items or services reimbursed by any non-governmental third-party payers, including private insurers; state laws that require device manufacturers to comply with the industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the applicable compliance guidance promulgated by the federal government or otherwise restrict payments that may be made to healthcare providers and other potential referral sources; state laws that require device manufacturers to report information related to payments and other transfers of value to physicians and other healthcare providers or marketing expenditures and pricing information; and other federal and state laws that govern the privacy and security of health information or personally identifiable information in certain circumstances, including state health information privacy and data breach notification laws which govern the collection, use, disclosure, and protection of health-related and other personal information, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not preempted by HIPAA, thus requiring additional compliance efforts and data privacy and security laws and regulations in foreign jurisdictions that may be more stringent than those in the United States (such as the European Union, which adopted the General Data Protection Regulation, which became effective in May 2018).

 

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Because of the breadth of these laws and the narrowness of their statutory exceptions and regulatory safe harbors, it is possible that some of a medical device manufacturer’s business activities could be subject to challenge under one or more of these laws. The scope and enforcement of each of these laws is uncertain and subject to rapid change in the current environment of healthcare reform, especially in light of the lack of applicable precedent and regulations on some issues. Federal and state enforcement bodies have recently increased their scrutiny of interactions between healthcare companies and healthcare providers, which has led to a number of investigations, prosecutions, convictions and settlements in the healthcare industry.

 

Ensuring that business arrangements with third parties comply with applicable healthcare laws and regulations is costly and time consuming. If a medical device manufacturer’s operations are found to be in violation of any of the laws described above or any other governmental regulations that apply to it, it may be subject to civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, substantial monetary penalties, individual imprisonment, exclusion from governmental funded healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, additional reporting obligations and oversight if it becomes subject to a corporate integrity agreement or other agreement to resolve allegations of non-compliance with these laws, reputational harm, diminished profits and future earnings, and the curtailment or restructuring of operations, any of which could adversely affect the ability of a medical device manufacturer to operate its business and the results of its operations.

 

United States Healthcare Reform

 

In the United States, a number of legislative and regulatory proposals have been considered or enacted to change the healthcare system in ways that could affect a medical device manufacturer’s business. Among policy makers and governmental and private insurers in the United States, there is significant interest in promoting changes in healthcare systems with the stated goals of containing healthcare costs, improving quality or expanding access. For example, in 2010, the PPACA was enacted, which includes measures to significantly change the way health care is financed by both governmental and private insurers, and significantly impacts the medical device industry. Among other ways in which it may impact a medical device manufacturer’s business, the PPACA:

 

establishes a new Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute to oversee and identify priorities in comparative clinical efficacy research in an effort to coordinate and develop such research;

 

implements payment system reforms including a national pilot program on payment bundling to encourage hospitals, physicians and other providers to improve the coordination, quality and efficiency of certain healthcare services through bundled payment models; and

 

expands the eligibility criteria for Medicaid programs.

 

Some of the provisions of the PPACA have yet to be implemented, and there have been judicial and Congressional challenges to modify, limit, or repeal certain aspects of the PPACA since its enactment and have continued to evolve. Since taking office, President Trump has continued to support the repeal of all or portions of the PPACA, and in January 2017, he signed Executive Orders designed to delay the implementation of certain provisions of the PPACA or otherwise circumvent some of the requirements for health insurance mandated by the PPACA to the maximum extent permitted by law. Due to such efforts, certain elements of the PPACA have been invalidated or suspended, which has, in turn, led to additional challenges against the law as a whole. For example, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 included a provision repealing, effective January 1, 2019, the tax-based shared responsibility payment imposed by the PPACA on certain individuals who fail to maintain qualifying health coverage for all or part of a year that is commonly referred to as the “individual mandate”. As a result, there is significant uncertainty regarding future healthcare reform and its impact on our operations. in December 2018, a district court in Texas held that the individual mandate is unconstitutional and that the rest of the PPACA is, therefore, invalid. On appeal, the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed the holding on the individual mandate but remanded the case back to the lower court to reassess whether and how such holding affects the validity of the rest of the PPACA. Substantial uncertainty remains as to the future of the PPACA after the U.S. Supreme Court declined to expedite its review of the Fifth Circuit’s holding on January 21, 2020. It is, thus, unlikely that these issues will be resolved before the next presidential election in November 2020. The current administration may seek to pass additional reform measures before the upcoming election. We cannot predict the outcome of the election, nor can we predict the healthcare-reform-related initiatives that the newly elected (or re-elected, as applicable) administration will put forth thereafter. There is no way to know whether, and to what extent, if any, the PPACA will remain in-effect in the future, and it is unclear how judicial decisions, subsequent appeals, election-related measures, or other efforts to repeal and replace or, possibly, to restore the PPACA will impact the U.S. healthcare industry or our business.

 

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We cannot predict the impact that such actions against the PPACA will have on our business, and there is uncertainty as to what healthcare programs and regulations may be implemented or changed at the federal and/or state level in the United States, or the effect of any future legislation or regulation. However, it is possible that such initiatives could have an adverse effect on our ability to obtain approval and/or successfully commercialize products in the United States in the future. For example, any changes that reduce, or impede the ability to obtain, reimbursement for the type of products we intend to commercialize in the United States (or our products more specifically, if approved) or reduce medical procedure volumes could adversely affect our business plan to introduce our products in the United States.

 

Outside of the United States

 

We also have received European Conformity (CE) marking in the European Economic Area (EEA) and in Israel for MDD, OCD and 11 other indications in psychiatry, addiction treatment and neurology. Sales and marketing of medical devices outside of the United States are subject to foreign regulatory requirements that vary widely from country to country. The time required to obtain appropriate marketing authorizations from other foreign authorities may be longer or shorter than that required for FDA approval. Whether or not we have obtained FDA approval, our Deep TMS systems may be subject to different regulatory requirements in other jurisdictions. The foreign regulatory approval process includes all the risks associated with FDA regulation, as well as country-specific regulations.

 

Employees

 

Our employees include professionals with extensive experience in medical device development and applications, neurology and psychopathology, pre-clinical experimentation, clinical development and business development. As of December 31, 2019, we had 107 employees, of which 39 are based in the United States and 68 are based outside of the United States (mainly in Israel). This includes 28 employees in sales and marketing (including 22 in the United States) and 30 employees in clinical trials and research and development.

 

While none of our employees are party to any collective bargaining agreements, certain provisions of the collective bargaining agreements between the Histadrut (General Federation of Labor in Israel) and the Coordination Bureau of Economic Organizations (including the Industrialists’ Associations) are applicable to our employees by order of the Israel Ministry of Labor. Such orders are part of the employment related laws and regulations which apply to our employees and set certain mandatory terms of employment. Such mandatory terms of employment primarily concern the length of the workday, minimum daily wages, pension plan benefits for all employees, insurance for work-related accidents, procedures for dismissal of employees, severance pay and other conditions of employment. We generally provide our employees with benefits and working conditions beyond the required minimums.

 

We have never experienced an employment-related work stoppage and we believe our relationship with our employees is good.

 

Environmental Matters

 

We are subject to various environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, including those governing noise emissions. We believe that our business, operations and facilities are being operated in compliance in all material respects with applicable environmental and health and safety laws and regulations. Based on information currently available to us, we do not expect environmental costs and contingencies to have a material adverse effect on us. Significant expenditures could be required in the future, however, if we are required to comply with new or more stringent environmental or health and safety laws, regulations or requirements.

 

Legal Proceedings

 

We are not involved in any material legal proceedings.

 

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C.Organizational Structure

 

Our three subsidiaries, all of which wholly-owned are: Brainsway, Inc., incorporated in Delaware on March 31, 2003, Brain Research and Development Services Ltd., incorporated in Israel on August 13, 2003 and Brainsway USA Inc., incorporated in Delaware on November 24, 2014.

 

D.Property

 

We have offices in the United States and Israel.

 

In Israel, we have leased offices in Jerusalem, Israel, Since November 2007, pursuant to a lease agreement that expires in September 2022. The facility contains approximately 1,505 square meters of space, and lease payments and management fees are approximately $30,000 plus value added tax, or VAT, per month, in the aggregate, and are paid in NIS. The monthly payments owed are adjusted based on movements in Israel’s Consumer Price Index since October 2007. This facility houses our administrative and research operations and our central laboratory. Substantially all of our Israeli-based employees are based in this facility.

 

In  the United States, our corporate offices have been located in New Jersey since April 2016. We are currently in the process of locating an expanded facility to house our growing U.S. based sales, marketing and logistics workforce. Until such long term expanded facility is secured, we are currently based out of offices in New Jersey consisting of 4,135 square feet of space, and our monthly rent payments are expected to amount to approximately $7,600 per month beginning in May 2020.

 

ITEM 4A.UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

 

Not applicable.

 

ITEM 5.OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

 

You should read the following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations in conjunction with the financial statements and the notes thereto included elsewhere in this Annual Report.  The following discussion contains forward-looking statements that reflect our plans, estimates and beliefs.  Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to these differences include those discussed below and elsewhere in this Annual Report, particularly those in “Item 3. Key Information – D. Risk Factors.”

 

Company Overview

 

We are a commercial stage medical device company focused on the development and sale of non-invasive neuromodulation products using our proprietary Deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (Deep TMS), technology for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), for which we have received marketing authorization from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Deep TMS uses magnetic pulses to stimulate neurons and consequently modulates the physiological activity of the brain.

 

Our first commercial Deep TMS product received clearance from the FDA in 2013 for the treatment of MDD in adult patients who have failed to achieve satisfactory improvement from anti-depressant medication in the current episode. Our Deep TMS system for MDD is currently marketed to and installed at psychiatrists’ offices and other facilities principally in the United States and in certain other countries throughout the world. In addition, our second Deep TMS system received FDA marketing authorization in August 2018 as an adjunct therapy for adult patients suffering from OCD, and we have commenced sales and marketing efforts for that indication. Our sales and marketing efforts are currently focused in the United States, where we generated approximately 90% of our revenues in the year ended December 31, 2019.

 

We believe that Deep TMS represents a platform technology that provides for an opportunity to develop additional Deep TMS products for a variety of psychiatric, neurological and addiction disorders. We are currently working to support FDA clearance of Deep TMS for smoking cessation. We are also planning multicenter trials for other indications, including opioid addiction, fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS), and post-stroke rehabilitation, the latter of which are the first neurological indications that we plan to advance into multicenter trials.

 

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Our current customers are principally doctors, hospitals and medical centers in the field of psychiatry. Treatment with Deep TMS is typically performed as an office-based procedure using our Deep TMS system, which consists of our proprietary H-Coil helmet, as well as several other components, including a stimulator, cooling system, positioning arm and an operator interface. A course of treatment for MDD typically requires 20 treatment sessions five times a week over a period of four weeks, and thereafter up to 24 additional maintenance-continuation sessions twice weekly over a period of up to 12 weeks. The standard Deep TMS treatment protocol for OCD requires 29 treatment sessions over six weeks. A standard MDD or OCD session lasts 20 and 19 minutes, respectively. Patients may experience some discomfort during treatment and must use earplugs to reduce exposure to the loud sounds produced by the device. The treatment requires no anesthesia, hospitalization or sedation and no systemic side effects have been reported.

 

In the United States, we sell or lease Deep TMS systems by one of the following methods: (i) a fixed-fee lease model in which the Deep TMS system is leased to a customer for a fixed annual fee, generally with a term of up to four years, for unlimited use; (ii) a risk share model (variable fees) in which the Deep TMS system is leased to a customer which pays fees based on the higher of: fees per treatment (i.e., usage based fees) or an annual minimum fee as stated in the contract, minimum amount; and (iii) a sales model in which the Deep TMS system is sold to the customer for a fixed purchase price, with additional potential revenue from annual warranty paid for the system for each year subsequent to the expiration of the standard warranty for the first year. These three models are designed to facilitate market penetration by addressing the differing clinical needs and risk tolerance among our customer base. As of December 31, 2019, approximately 45% of our Deep TMS systems installed base for MDD utilized the fixed-fee lease model, approximately 41% utilized the sales model and approximately 14% utilized our risk share model. We have started, and expect to continue, to commercialize Deep TMS for OCD based solely on the risk share model, which charges per session and per treatment, in an effort to achieve greater market acceptance for that indication.

 

As of December 31, 2019, we had an installed base of approximately 530 Deep TMS systems, whereby 315 systems were leased from us (inclusive of our fixed fee model and our risk share model) and an additional 215 systems were sold by us prior to December 31, 2019. Our installed base increased by 42 systems during the fourth quarter of 2019. In addition, as of December 31, 2019, we had shipped 173 OCD coils as additional coils attached to certain of our new and existing systems following our receipt in August 2018 of marketing approval from the FDA for our OCD system.

 

For the year ended December 31, 2019, our revenues were $23.1 million compared to $16.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, representing an increase of 41% over the revenues generated in 2018. We incurred net losses of $10.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2019.

 

As of December 31, 2019, our total committed payments under signed lease contracts was approximately $29.1 million, assuming no exercise of any early termination options, representing an decrease of $0.3 million from our total committed payments as of December 31, 2018 of approximately $29.4 million.

 

As of December 31, 2019, we had an accumulated deficit of $71.9 million. Our primary sources of capital to date have been from public offerings in Israel and private placements of our securities, grants from the Israel Innovation Authority (IIA), borrowings under our credit facilities, and the lease and sale of our products.

 

We expect our research, development and clinical trials expenses to increase in connection with our ongoing activities, particularly as we continue to pursue future FDA clearance for our completed clinical trial in smoking cessation and our planned clinical trials for opioid addiction, fatigue in MS and post-stroke rehabilitation. In addition, we expect to incur significant commercialization expenses for product sales, marketing, manufacturing and distribution. We believe that our existing cash resources will be sufficient to enable us to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements for at least the next 24 months. However, we may need additional funding to support the continuation of our operating activities.

 

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Components of Our Results of Operations

 

Revenues

 

We derive our revenues from the lease and sale of our Deep TMS systems. For Deep TMS for MDD, we offer three different pricing models:

 

Fixed-fee Lease Model: The customer leases the Deep TMS system and pays a fixed annual fee (which in some cases increases annually) for an unlimited number of treatments for the term of the lease (generally up to four years). The pricing of the annual fee generally assumes three (3) to four (4) treatments per day.

 

Risk Share Model: The customer leases the Deep TMS system and the customer pays a variable fee based on the higher of: fees per treatment (i.e., usage based fees) or an annual minimum fee (determined based on a minimum number of monthly or annual treatments). As in the fixed-fee lease model, these leases generally have a term of up to four years. The pricing of the minimal annual fee generally assumes approximately 400 sessions per year.

 

Sales Model: The Deep TMS system is sold to the customer for a fixed purchase price. We also offer annual service warranty for the system that may be provided after the expiration of the standard warranty for additional fees.

 

Our revenues from the operating leases of our Deep TMS systems are recognized on a straight-line method over the term of the lease. Usage based fees are recognized as revenue when we are entitled to receive such revenue. Our revenues from sales are recognized when control of the system is transferred to the customer, generally upon delivery of the system.

 

Cost of revenues and gross margin

 

Our cost of revenues include a significant component of depreciation of the Deep TMS systems, due to the fact that we maintain ownership of our systems under our fixed-fee lease and risk share model, in which we lease the system for use by our customers, rather than sell it outright. We expect to continue to own our Deep TMS systems under our fixed-fee lease and risk share model for the foreseeable future, which allows us to maintain our relatively low cost of revenues.

 

In the case of the Deep TMS systems that we sell under our sales model, the entire cost of the Deep TMS system is recognized upon such sale. The cost of revenues for systems that we sell primarily consists of the costs of raw materials, including components purchased from our third-party contract manufacturers and manufacturing and assembly of the components that we perform ourselves. While we have previously used a third-party stimulator for our Deep TMS systems, we recently developed and have received FDA clearance for our own proprietary stimulator for MDD (in May 2018) and OCD (in March 2019). Consequently, we believe that our cost of revenues with respect to system components will decrease.

 

The cost of revenues for systems that we lease or sell also include costs related to personnel, royalties to PHS and Yeda, shipping, and our operations department. We expect our cost of revenues to increase in absolute dollars to the extent our revenues increase.

 

Selling and marketing expenses

 

Selling and marketing expenses consist of marketing and commercial activities related to the sale and lease of our Deep TMS systems, as well as personnel expenses, including salaries and related benefits, sales commissions, share-based compensation for employees and facility costs. Other significant sales and marketing costs include conferences, trade shows, and promotional and marketing activities, including direct and online marketing, practice support programs, media campaigns and travel expenses.

 

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We anticipate an increase in the headcount of our commercial organization as we continue to expand our business in the United States and internationally, and as we receive the relevant regulatory clearances for additional indications for our system. As a result, we expect our sales and marketing expenses to continue to increase.

 

Research and development expenses, net

 

Research and development expenses, net, consist primarily of personnel expenses, including salaries and related benefits, share-based compensation for employees, facility costs, laboratory materials, regulatory costs, patents and travel expenses, as well as expenses associated with outsourced professional scientific development services and the costs of multi-center and other clinical trials.

 

We expect to continue to incur research and development expenses for the near future as we advance the development of our Deep TMS technology for the treatment of new indications, which may include smoking cessation and other potential psychiatric, neurological and addiction indications, as well as for various hardware and software development projects related to the Deep TMS system. As a result, we expect our research and development expenses to continue to increase.

 

A portion of our investment in research and development is funded by participation of the IIA through grants which are presented net of research and development expenses.

 

General and administrative expenses

 

General and administrative expenses consist primarily of personnel expenses, including salaries and related benefits, share-based compensation, and travel expenses for employees in executive, finance, information technology, legal and human resource functions. General and administrative expenses also include the cost of insurance, professional services, including legal and accounting fees as well as administrative costs, including corporate facility costs.

 

We anticipate that our general and administrative expenses will increase due to planned expansion of our activities. We anticipate higher corporate infrastructure costs including, but not limited to, accounting, legal, human resources, consulting and investor relations and listing fees on the Nasdaq Global Market, costs associated with reporting and compliance in the United States, as well as increased director and officer insurance premiums, as a result of becoming a public company in the United States.

 

Finance expenses, net

 

Our finance expenses, net, consist primarily of expenses related to bank charges, interest expense payable under our credit facility and the amortization of deferred financing costs related to our bank loan and finance expense with respect to the fair value re-measurement related to our outstanding liability to the IIA on account of grants received for financing our research and development activity, as well as interest income earned on our bank deposits and foreign currency exchange transactions.

 

Income taxes expense

 

Our income taxes expense is derived primarily from income generated from the sales and lease of our Deep TMS systems from our U.S. subsidiary. During the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, we did not record an income tax benefit related to our current and carryforward losses for tax purposes as a valuation allowance was established for all deferred tax assets as utilization is not probable due to our cumulative net loss position.

 

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

 

The preparation of financial statements, in conformity with IFRS, requires companies to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. These estimates and judgments are subject to an inherent degree of uncertainty, and actual results may differ. Our significant accounting policies are more fully described in Note 2 to our financial statements included elsewhere in this report. Critical accounting estimates and judgments are continually evaluated and are based on historical experience and other factors, including expectations of future events that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, and are particularly important to the portrayal of our financial position and results of operations. Our estimates are primarily guided by observing the following critical accounting policies:

 

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Revenue Recognition

 

We generate revenues from the sale and lease of our systems. We sell products mainly to end users and to a lesser extent, to third-party distributors outside of the United States and do not provide return rights. We typically have post-sale obligations of training and installation of our systems and may provide an annual service warranty for the Deep TMS system after the expiration of the standard warranty. Revenues for such services are deemed distinct performance obligations and are recognized when the services are performed. Revenue recognized from these services has been insignificant for the reported periods.

 

Revenue from sale of systems are recognized at the point in time when control of the system is transferred to the customer, generally upon delivery of the system to the customer.

 

We generate lease revenue from (i) a fixed-fee lease model in which the Deep TMS system is leased to a customer for a fixed annual fee, generally for a term of up to four years, allowing for unlimited use; and (ii) a risk share model, or a variable fee, in which the Deep TMS system is leased to a customer who pays based on the higher of: fees per treatment (i.e., usage based fees) or an annual minimum fee as stated in the contract. Leases in which substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of the leased asset are not transferred to the lessee are classified as operating leases. Revenue from operating leases are recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Usage based fees are recognized as revenue when the Company is entitled to receive such revenue.

 

Allowance for doubtful accounts based on expected credit losses on trade receivables

 

We apply a simplified approach and measure the loss allowance in respect of our short -term financial assets, trade receivables, in an amount equal to the lifetime expected credit losses.

 

The Company records an allowance for doubtful accounts based on expected credit losses for trade receivables. The allowance rates are based on days past due for its various customers. The allowance is initially based on the Company’s historical observed default rates as well as forward-looking information. At each reporting date, the historical observed default rates are updated and changes in the forward-looking estimates are analyzed. The amount of the allowance is sensitive to changes in circumstances and forecasted economic conditions.

 

Royalty Bearing Governmental Grants

 

Government grants are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the grants will be received and the Company will comply with all attached conditions. Government grants received from the IIA and repayable to the IIA through royalty-bearing sales are recognized upon receipt as a liability if future economic benefits are expected to be derived through estimated future cash flows from the research project, resulting in royalty bearing sales due to the IIA.

 

A liability for the grant is first measured at fair value using a discount rate that reflects a market rate of interest. The difference between the amount of the grant received and the fair value of the liability is accounted for as a government grant and recognized as a reduction of research and development expenses. After initial recognition, the liability is measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method. Royalty payments are recorded as a reduction of the liability.

 

If no economic benefits are expected from the research activity, the grant received are recognized as a reduction of the related research and development expenses. In that event, the royalty obligation is treated as a contingent liability.

 

In each reporting date, the Company evaluates whether there is reasonable assurance that the liability recognized, in whole or in part, will not be repaid based on the best estimate of future sales and using the original effective interest method and, if so, the appropriate amount of the liability is derecognized against a corresponding reduction in research and development expenses.

 

Grants received from the IIA prior to January 1, 2009, which are recognized as a liability, are accounted for as forgivable loans in accordance with IAS 20, based on the original terms of the loan.

 

Share-based compensation

 

Share-based compensation reflects the compensation expense of our stock option programs granted to employee and other service providers, in which the compensation expense is measured at the grant date fair value of the options. The grant date fair value of share-based compensation is recognized as an expense over the requisite service period, net of estimated forfeitures. We recognize compensation expense for awards conditioned only on continued service that have a graded vesting schedule using the accelerated method and classify these amounts in our statement of comprehensive loss based on the department to which the related employee/service provider reports.

 

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Options Valuation

 

We selected the Binomial Lattice option-pricing model as the most appropriate method for determining the estimated fair value of the shared-based compensation. For the purpose of the evaluation of the fair value and the manner of the recognition of share-based compensation, our management is required to estimate, among others, various subjective parameters that are included in the calculation of the fair value of the option, as well as our results and the number of options that will vest. These parameters include the expected volatility of our share price over the expected term of the options, the risk-free interest rate assumption, forfeitures behaviors and expected dividends.

 

Fair value of ordinary shares. Since our ordinary shares have traded on the TASE since 2007 and our ADSs have traded on the Nasdaq Global Market since 2019, we have a market price per share of our ordinary shares and ADSs. Until September 30, 2018, the exercise price for the options was determined based on the average price per share over the 30 trading days on TASE prior to the grant date. Subsequent to September 30, 2018, the exercise price for the options was determined based on the average price per share over the 90 trading days on TASE prior to the grant date plus a premium of 10%, and for options granted to U.S. residents, the exercise price for the options was determined based on the greater of (i) average price per share over the 90 trading days on TASE prior to the grant date plus a premium of 10% and (ii) the last closing price per share on TASE prior to the actual grant dates.

 

Volatility. The expected volatility of the price of our ordinary shares reflects the assumption that the historical volatility of the share prices on the TASE is reasonably indicative of expected future trends.

 

Risk-free interest rate. The risk-free interest rate is based on observed interest rates appropriate for the expected term of the options granted in dollar terms.

 

Expected term. The expected term of options granted is derived from the output of the option valuation model and represents the period of time the options are expected to be outstanding.

 

Expected dividend yield. We have never declared or paid any cash dividends and we do not plan to pay cash dividends in the foreseeable future.

 

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

 

The recent accounting pronouncements are set forth in Note 2 to our audited consolidated financial statements beginning on page F-1 of this Annual Report.

 

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A.Operating Results

 

Quarterly Results of Operations

 

The following tables show our unaudited quarterly statements of operations for the periods indicated. We have prepared this quarterly information on a basis consistent with our audited financial statements.

 

Three Months Ended

 

   March 31   June 30     Sep. 30   Dec. 31   March 31   June 30   Sep. 30   Dec. 31   March 31   June 30   Sep. 30   Dec. 31 
   2019   2018   2017 
Statements of operations  U.S. dollars in thousands 
Revenues   5,182    5,695    5,932    6,292    3,605    3,726    4,294    4,772    2,148    2,379    3,016    3,602 
Cost of revenues   1,158    1,376    1,153    1,442    697    862    925    1,105    447    556    681    911 
Gross profit   4,024    4,319    4,779    4,850    2,908    2,864    3,369    3,667    1,701    1,823    2,335    2,691 
Research and development expenses, net   1,792    2,362    1,913    1,809    1,711    1,270    1,353    1,822    1,161    1,339    1,336    1,507 
Selling and marketing expenses   2,838    3,278    3,549    3,604    1,881    1,907    2,028    2,529    1,436    1,612    1,523    1,760 
General and administrative expenses   1,003    1,380    1,492    1,428    733    691    929    1,068    586    660    742    1,499 
Total operating expenses   5,633    7,020    6,954    6,841    4,325    3,868    4,310    5,419    3,183    3,611    3,601    4,766 
Total operating loss   1,609    2,701    2,175    1,991    1,417    1,004    941    1,752    1,482    1,788    1,266    2,075 
Finance expenses, net   236    672    344    178    (415)   741    508    322    444    (1,277)   522    585 
Loss before income taxes   1,845    3,373    2,519    2,169    1,002    1,745    1,449    2,074    1,926    511    1,788    2,660 
Income taxes   62    100    113    147    25    81    28    75            42    127 
Net loss and comprehensive loss   1,907    3,473    2,632    2,316    1,027    1,826    1,477    2,149    1,926    511    1,830    2,787 

 

Our quarterly revenues and operating results have varied in the past and are expected to vary in the future due to numerous factors. We believe that period-to-period comparisons of our operating results are not necessarily meaningful and should not be relied upon as indications of future performance.

 

Year ended December 31, 2019 compared to year ended December 31, 2018

 

Revenues 

 

Our total revenues increased by $6.7 million, or 41%, from $16.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 to $23.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. The increase in revenues was attributed mainly to the ongoing and steady increase in our revenues from the lease of Deep TMS systems in accordance with our strategic decision to shift our sales and marketing focus to the lease and risk share models, which was further supported by an increase in direct sales. Revenues from leases (inclusive of our fixed-fee model and risk share model) were 57% of the revenues for the year ended December 31, 2019, compared to 58% of the revenues for the year ended December 31, 2018.

 

Cost of revenues and gross margin

 

Our cost of revenues increased by $1.5 million, or 43%, from $3.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 to $5.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. The increase in cost of revenues is in line with our increase in revenues. There was no material change in the gross margin, which was 78% for the year ended December 31, 2019 consistent with prior year.

 

Research and development expenses, net

 

Our research and development expenses, net, were $7.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to $6.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. The increase of $1.7 million, or 28%, was mainly attributed to the acceleration and growth of our research and development activity, both in clinical trials and in hardware and software development, offset by an increase in the participation of the IIA in projects under development.

 

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Selling and marketing expenses

 

Our selling and marketing expenses were $13.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to $8.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. The increase of $4.9 million, or 59%, was mainly attributed to the continued growth in our U.S. marketing activity, including recruitment of sales, marketing and support personnel in the United States.

 

General and administrative expenses

 

Our general and administrative expenses were $5.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to $3.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. The increase was due to additional costs associated with the Company being a public company in the U.S. and an increase in an allowance for expected credit losses.

 

Finance expenses, net

 

Our finance expenses, net, were $1.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to $1.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. The increase of $0.2 million, or 24%, was mainly attributed to the fair value re-measurement related to our outstanding liability to the IIA on account of grants received for financing our research and development activity.

 

Year ended December 31, 2018 compared to year ended December 31, 2017

 

For comparison of fiscal year 2018 to fiscal year 2017 please see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Year ended December 31, 2018 compared to year ended December 31, 2017” section in our Prospectus on Form 424B4 filed with the SEC on April 17, 2019.

 

B.Liquidity and Capital Resources

 

Overview 

 

As of December 31, 2019, we had cash, cash equivalents and short-term deposits of $21.9 million and an accumulated deficit of $71.9 million, compared to cash and short-term deposits of $9.1 million and an accumulated deficit of $61.6 million as of December 31, 2018. We incurred negative cash flows from operating activities of $3.8 million and $7.2 million for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2019, respectively. We have incurred operating losses since our inception, and we anticipate that our operating losses will continue in the near term as we seek to expand our sales and marketing initiatives to support our growth in existing and new markets and invest funds in additional research and development activities. Our primary sources of capital to date have been from public offerings in the U.S. and Israel and private placements of our securities, grants from the IIA, and leases and sales of our Deep TMS systems. From inception through December 31, 2019, we raised $84 million from placements of our ordinary shares and exercise of options.

 

We expect our revenues and expenses to increase in connection with our ongoing activities, particularly as we expand the marketing of our Deep TMS system for MDD and OCD, and for other indications for which we may receive regulatory authorizations in the future. Based on our current business plan, we believe that our cash and cash equivalents as of December 31, 2019 and the anticipated revenues from sales of our products will be sufficient to meet our anticipated cash requirements through at least the next 24 months. However, if these sources are insufficient to satisfy our liquidity requirements, we may seek to sell additional equity securities, seek to enter into a new credit facility, or seek financing from third party collaborators. If we raise additional funds by issuing equity securities, our shareholders would experience dilution. Additional debt financing, if available, may involve covenants restricting our operations or our ability to incur additional debt. We can provide no assurance that additional equity or debt financing will be available on terms favorable to us, or at all. If we raise additional funds through collaborations with third parties, we may be required to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies, future revenue streams, research programs or product candidates or to grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us. If we are unable to obtain adequate funds on reasonable terms, we will need to curtail operations significantly, including possibly postponing anticipated clinical trials or entering into financing agreements with unfavorable terms.

 

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Cash flows

 

The table below summarizes our cash flow activities for the indicated periods:

 

   Year Ended
December 31,
 
(in thousands)  2018   2019 
Net cash used in operating activities   $(3,773)  $(7,244)
Net cash used in investing activities    (1,136)   (2,446)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities    (265)   22,474 
Exchange rate differences on cash and cash equivalents    (367)   (78)
Increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents   $(5,541)  $12,706 

 

Operating Activities

 

Net cash used in operating activities was $7.2 million during the year ended December 31, 2019, compared to $3.4 million used during the year ended December 31, 2018. The increase of $3.7 million was mainly attributed to the increase in our operational growth driven by our business expansion in the United States.

 

Investing Activities

 

Net cash used in investing activities was $2.4 million during the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to net cash provided by investing activities of $1.1 million during the year ended December 31, 2018. The increase of $1.3 million was mainly attributed to purchase of equipment and system components.

 

Financing Activities

 

Net cash provided by financing activities was $22.5 million during the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to $0.3 million provided by financing activities during the year ended December 31, 2018. The increase was mainly attributed to the initial public offering on Nasdaq completed in April 2019.

 

Government Grants

 

As of December 31, 2019, we have received grants from the IIA in an aggregate amount of approximately $12.7 million. We are currently required to pay 3% royalties of sales of our Deep TMS products, which payment obligations do not currently exceed the amount of the grant received (in U.S. dollars), plus interest at an annual rate equal to the LIBOR rate. As of December 31, 2019, we have paid royalties to the IIA in an aggregate amount of approximately $2.0 million (including amounts in respect of accrued interest), with remaining outstanding royalties of up to $12.9 million.

 

Research and development grants received from the IIA are recognized upon receipt as a liability if future economic benefits are expected from the project that will result in royalty-bearing sales. The amount of the liability for the loan is first measured at fair value using a discount rate that reflects a market rate of interest that reflects, in turn, the appropriate degree of risks inherent in our business. If no economic benefits are expected from the research activity, the grant receipts are recognized as a reduction of the related research and development expenses. In that event, the royalty obligation is treated as a contingent liability in accordance with IAS 37, “Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Asset.”

 

At the end of each reporting period, we evaluate whether there is a reasonable assurance that the received grants will not be repaid based on our best estimate of future sales and, if so, no liability is recognized and the grants are recorded against a corresponding reduction in research and development expenses.

 

Research and development grants received from the European Union are recorded against a corresponding reduction in research and development expenses.

 

Additionally, in 2013, the MAGNET committee of the IIA (MAGNET) approved the activities of the consortium for the development plan of a brain stimulator and monitor tool, which we refer to as the Consortium, of which we are one of the participants. As part of the Consortium, we received from MAGNET approvals for grants in an aggregate amount of NIS 8.2 million (approximately $2.4 million based on the NIS to USD exchange rate as of December 31, 2019). There is no requirement to repay the grants or pay royalties thereon. Such non-royalty-bearing grants from MAGNET program for funding approved research and development projects are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the grants will be received and we will comply with all attached conditions, on the basis of the costs incurred, and are presented as a deduction from research and development expenses. In the event of failure of a project that was partly financed by the IIA, we would not be obligated to pay any royalties or repay the amounts received.

 

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C.Research and Development, Patents and Licenses

 

Intellectual Property

 

The core technology of our Deep TMS based on H-Coils is covered by our patents.

 

Our intellectual property portfolio consists principally of patents and pending patent applications related to our Deep TMS technology that are either exclusively licensed to us for commercialization on a worldwide basis from (1) agencies of the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), and (2) Yeda Research and Development Company Limited, or Yeda, the commercialization arm of the Weizmann Institute for Science (Weizmann Institute) or are owned by us. These include a total of 16 issued U.S. patents, 3 pending U.S. patent applications, 25 issued patents in other jurisdictions (treating Europe as one jurisdiction), and 26 pending patent applications in other jurisdictions.

 

Our strategy is to seek to protect our proprietary position by, among other methods, filing U.S. and foreign patent applications related to our proprietary technology, inventions and improvements that are important to the development of our business. Our intellectual property rights outside of the United States are principally in Europe (France, Italy, Sweden, UK and Germany), Canada, Australia, Japan, Hong Kong and Israel. Patents related to our Deep TMS technology may provide future competitive advantages with claims related to aspects of the structure of our coils and methods of administration of treatment for applications of such technology. We also rely on our trade secrets, know-how and continuing technological innovation to develop and maintain our proprietary position. We look to defend our Deep TMS technology by asserting our intellectual property rights, where it is determined to be necessary, to preserve our rights and gain the benefit of our technological investments. We seek to obtain patents in connection with the technology that we have developed as part of our strategy for protection of our intellectual property, including technology covered under our license agreements with the PHS and Yeda.

 

The claiming strategy in each of our patent applications is based on the advice of our patent counsel and our business model and our business needs are taken into consideration. We file patent applications containing claims seeking protection of our proprietary technologies and products, as well as all new applications and/or uses we discover or develop for existing technologies and products, assuming these are strategically valuable. We continuously assess the number and types of patent applications, as well as the pending and issued patent claims, to ensure that appropriate coverage and value are obtained for our systems and methods, given the governing law and the corresponding patent office rules and regulations. In addition, claims may be modified during patent prosecution or additional claims added to meet our intellectual property and business needs.

 

Patents and Patent Applications 

 

Our first group of patents (Patent Family A) relates to the H-Coil technology in general: H-Coil for MDD (BrainsWay D), the H-Coil for OCD (BrainsWay OCD) and to future products we are developing, including one that is the subject of a pivotal multicenter clinical trial that we recently completed: H-Coil for smoking cessation. This group of patents has been exclusively licensed to us from the PHS, and includes two issued U.S. patents and seven issued patents in other jurisdictions. The issued patents are set to expire in 2024 in the U.S. and in 2021 in other countries.

 

Our second group of patents (Patent Family B) relates to additional design features of the BrainsWay D and also covers some future products we are developing. This group of patents has been licensed to us from the PHS and from Yeda, and includes six issued U.S. patents, eight issued patents in other jurisdictions, and three pending patent applications in other jurisdictions. The issued patents related to BrainsWay D are set to expire in 2025 in the U.S. and in 2026 in other countries, not taking into account any potential patent term adjustment or extension that may be available in the future.

 

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Our third group of patents (Patent Family C) relates to a family of central base coils including BrainsWay OCD and also some future products that we are developing. This group of patents is owned by us, and includes two issued U.S. patents, one pending U.S. patent application, five issued patents in other jurisdictions, and six pending patent applications in other jurisdictions. The issued patents are set to expire in 2033 in the U.S. and in 2034 in other countries, not taking into account any potential patent term adjustment or extension that may be available in the future.

 

Our fourth group of patents (Patent Family D) relates to a family of unilateral coils including some future products we are developing. Patent Family D is owned by us, and includes one issued U.S. patent, three issued patents in other jurisdictions and two pending patent applications in other jurisdictions. The issued patents are set to expire in 2033 in the U.S. and in 2034 in other countries, not taking into account any potential patent term adjustment or extension that may be available in the future.

 

Our fifth group of patents (Patent Family E) consists of utility model patent applications for BrainsWay D and BrainsWay OCD. This group of patents (Patent Family E) is owned by us and includes two issued Chinese Utility Model patent applications: one for BrainsWay D and another one for BrainsWay OCD and a PCT patent application incorporating both.

 

Our sixth group of patents (Patent Family F) relates to a family of circular coils including BrainsWay D, the H-Coil for smoking, the subject of a recently completed pivotal multicenter clinical trial, as well as some other future products we are developing. This group of patents (Patent Family F) is owned by us, and includes two issued U.S. patents, two issued patents in other jurisdictions and four pending patent applications in other jurisdictions. The issued patents are set to expire in 2033 in the U.S. and in 2034 in other countries, not taking into account any potential patent term adjustment or extension that may be available in the future.

 

Our seventh group of patents (Patent Family G) relates to real-time closed-loop brain stimulation and includes one PCT patent application.

 

Our eighth group of patents (additional families of issued patents and pending patent applications) relates to a multichannel stimulator we are developing as an enhancement to our Deep TMS system, which we see as the next generation of our products, several H-Coil designs which may be future products, capabilities to address additional medical conditions such as the need to open the blood brain barrier, and biomarker research using Deep TMS with an EEG that we are currently conducting. These include five issued U.S. patents, two pending U.S. patent applications, seven issued patents in other jurisdictions, and eight pending patent applications in other jurisdictions. Patent applications in these families, if issued, are set to expire in 2028, 2029, 2033 and between 2037 and 2039, not taking into account any potential patent term adjustment or extension that may be available in the future.

 

In addition to the list of patents noted above, an additional group of patents relates to multichannel stimulation and was acquired from TMS Innovations, LLC. More specifically, we recently completed transactions which we believe will enable us to broaden the scope of capabilities in the multichannel stimulator we are developing. Specifically, in February 2019, we acquired all rights previously held by TMS Innovations, LLC in certain specified patents relevant to this area and are currently in the process of transferring these patents.

 

Furthermore, we are currently discussing the possibility of exclusively licensing certain rights held by the Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University in various additional patents relating to this area.

 

In addition to the list of patents noted above, in January 2020 we exercised our option to exclusively license the rights to certain patents relating to rotational field TMS from Yeda.

 

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The patent positions of companies like ours are generally uncertain and involve complex legal and factual questions that may vary from one jurisdiction to another. Our ability to maintain and solidify our proprietary position for our technology will depend on our success in obtaining effective claims and enforcing those claims once granted. We can provide no assurance that our patent applications or those patent applications that we in-license will result in the issuance of any corresponding patents (other than any allowed patent applications, which normally result in the issuance of a patent after the applicant has paid the required issue fee). The inability of any such patent applications to be allowed may harm our ability to protect our intellectual property, our ability to compete in the neuromodulation market, and our results of operations. Our issued patents and those that may be issued in the future, or those licensed to us, may be challenged, narrowed, circumvented or found to be invalid or unenforceable, which could limit our ability to stop competitors from marketing related products. Neither we nor our licensors can be certain that we were the first to invent or first to file for the inventions claimed in our owned or licensed patents or patent applications which may also affect our ability to assert the patents against others. In addition, our competitors may design around our patents or any technology developed by us, and the rights granted under any issued patents may not provide us with any meaningful competitive advantages against these competitors. Furthermore, because of the extensive time required for development, testing and regulatory review of a potential product, it is possible that, before our future product can be commercialized, any related patent may expire or remain in force for only a short period following commercialization, thereby reducing any advantage of the patent. See “Risk Factors—Risk Relating to Intellectual Property”.

 

License Agreements

 

The core technology for Deep TMS is exclusively licensed to us for commercialization on a worldwide basis from the PHS and Yeda.

 

PHS License Agreement

 

The initial discoveries of the Deep TMS technology and the feasibility studies for implementation of the technology were carried out in the framework of research performed at NIH by the scientific founders of our Company prior to its formation. The rights for such discoveries are owned by the DHHS and are now licensed to us by the PHS, an agency within the DHHS. Subsequent to these discoveries, applications were filed for registration of Patent Family A and Patent Family B (described under “—Patents” above) covering the H-Coils developed in the course of this research.

 

In 2003, we entered into a license agreement with the PHS, pursuant to which we were granted (i) an exclusive license to develop, manufacture, use, import and sell any product or treatment which is created or based on the patents and which deals with TMS and (ii) the right to enter into sublicense agreements, subject to approval of the PHS. The U.S. government was granted an irrevocable, nonexclusive, nontransferable royalty-free license for use of any invention in connection with the patents, throughout the world, for the benefit of the U.S. government, a foreign government and other international organization under the provisions of a treaty or agreement applicable to the U.S. government at such time. In addition, the PHS is entitled to grant academic or commercial bodies a nonexclusive license for use of the patents for advancement of basic research only, subject to our consent.

 

We are required to pay royalties consisting of 2% of our net sales or payments received from sales or leases of our Deep TMS systems using the licensed technology. In addition, we are required to pay a royalty of 8% of from the net cash proceeds we receive from any sublicenses, so long as the underlying intellectual property is valid and enforceable in the relevant territory.

 

The PHS is responsible for registration and defense of Patent Family A, subject to indemnification by us for registration expenses. We are responsible for registration and defense of the Patent Family B and are required to bear all related expenses.

 

The PHS license agreement is valid up until the expiration of the last to expire of the licensed patent rights under the agreement. The PHS may cancel the agreement in the event of, among others, (i) a fundamental breach by us, (ii) we enter into involuntary liquidation proceedings or shall become insolvent, (iii) we have not achieved our milestones under the agreement (all of which have been achieved as of the date hereof), (iv) we have maliciously made a false statement or has omitted a material fact in an application for a license or in any other report required under the agreement, (v) we do not make the product based upon the patents accessible to the public after commencement of the commercial marketing of the product, (vi) we are unable to bring the product to a level of safety which it must reach in order to license the product or (vii) we do not manufacture the licensed products substantially in the United States without reasonable justification, in each case, subject to a 90-day cure period (other than in respect of clause (ii) above). We may cancel the agreement at any time with 60 days’ notice, subject to payment of any outstanding royalties.

 

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If the PHS license agreement is terminated as a result of the expiration of the first registered patent under the agreement (as described above), we may continue to market and sell the products and processes in any country in which the patent is expired, without an obligation to pay royalties or any other payment whatsoever to the PHS.

 

Yeda License Agreement

 

In 2005, we entered into a research and licensing agreement with Yeda, which, as amended from time to time, we refer to as the Yeda license agreement, pursuant to which we licensed certain technologies developed at the Weizmann Institute in studies conducted by Prof. Avraham Zangen, the scientific founder and neurobiological advisor of the Company, in the field of treatment of depression using TMS technology. Under the Yeda license agreement, all of the rights, including the rights to registration of patents, rights and inventions, information and/or other results which shall arise from the research, referred to as the “licensed technology”, remain exclusively owned by Yeda. The Yeda license agreement grants us an exclusive license to use the licensed technology, throughout the world, for performance of research and development, manufacture, commercialization and sale of systems for medical treatment in the field of TMS treatment. The license is valid with regard to every product up to the expiration or revocation date of the latest patent registered under the agreement in a particular country, provided that the date of expiry of the license shall be extended to a period of 15 years commencing on the date of first commercial sale of the product in such country. Yeda reserves the right to make use of the information which shall be developed for academic and research purposes only, including its publication, subject to various restrictions set forth in the agreement. We have agreed to lend to Yeda, without consideration, one Deep TMS system, which it shall use for academic research purposes only. We have the right to grant sublicenses subject to the fulfillment of conditions specified in the agreement.

 

We recently exercised our right to add the additional rotational field TMS innovation. To the extent products based on this technology are commercialized we will have to pay Yeda royalties, either at increased rates ranging from an additional 1.6%-2% for “combined products” (which also include innovations covered by previous agreements), or at a fixed rate of 5% for products based exclusively on the rotational field TMS.

 

In addition to customary termination rights of a party due to material breach by the other party, Yeda has the right to terminate the agreement in the event that Yeda receives notice or a claim from the PHS that performance of the research constitutes breach of a patent of the PHS. We have agreed to indemnify Yeda in respect of any such claim or demand from the PHS. To the best of our knowledge, the Yeda agreement and performance of the research thereunder do not breach the terms of our license agreement with the PHS.

 

In any event of termination of the Yeda agreement, all of the rights in the licensed technology will be returned to Yeda, and we are required to grant Yeda a nonexclusive license, without consideration, in perpetuity, throughout the world for all information developed by it or which shall arise from the development of the products under the agreement, including any license or application for license submitted by us in connection with the products. Following the expiry of the latest patent in such country with regard to such product, we would be entitled to continue to manufacture and sell such product in such country without payment of royalties to Yeda.

 

Trade Secrets and Know-How

 

We may rely, in some circumstances, on trade secrets and know-how to protect our technology. However, trade secrets can be difficult to protect. We seek to protect our proprietary technology and processes, in part, through confidentiality agreements and assignment of inventions agreements with our employees, consultants, scientific advisors and contractors. We also seek to preserve the integrity and confidentiality of our data and trade secrets by maintaining physical security of our premises and physical and electronic security of our information technology systems. While we have confidence in these individuals, organizations and systems, such agreements or security measures may be breached, and we may not have adequate remedies for any breach. In addition, our trade secrets may otherwise become known or be independently discovered by competitors.

 

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D.Trend Information

 

Trend information is included throughout the other sections of this Item 5. In addition, the recent outbreak of the Coronavirus has led governments and authorities around the globe, to take various precautionary measures in order to limit the spread of the Coronavirus, including government-imposed quarantines and other public health safety measures, which could have an adverse effect on the global markets and its economy, including on the availability and pricing of materials, manufacturing and delivery efforts, sales to existing and potential customers and leads, collections from accounts and other aspects of the global economy. Therefore, the Coronavirus could disrupt production and cause delays in the supply and delivery of products used in our operations, may further divert the attention and efforts of the medical community to coping with the Coronavirus, impact our ability to recruit subjects for ongoing and planned clinical trials and disrupt the marketplace in which we operate and may have a material adverse effects on our operations, sales, revenues, collection from accounts and ability to raise funds. In particular, certain of our third-party suppliers may currently source certain components and materials of our Deep TMS systems from Asia and other affected countries, and the continued outbreak and spreading of the coronavirus may adversely impact our third-party suppliers’ development, manufacture, and supply of our Deep TMS systems. In addition, treatment sessions conducted with our Deep TMS system, which are generally scheduled or non-emergency procedures, may be postponed as hospitals and healthcare centers shift resources to patients affected by the coronavirus. The extent to which the coronavirus impacts our results will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including new information which may emerge concerning the severity of the coronavirus and the actions to contain the coronavirus or treat its impact, among others. Moreover, the coronavirus outbreak has begun to have indeterminable adverse effects on general commercial activity and the world economy, and our business and results of operations could be adversely affected to the extent that this coronavirus or any other epidemic harms the global economy generally.

 

E.Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

 

Since inception, we have not entered into any transactions with unconsolidated entities whereby we have financial guarantees, subordinated retained interests, derivative instruments or other contingent arrangements that expose us to material continuing risks, contingent liabilities, or any other obligations under a variable interest in an unconsolidated entity that provides us with financing, liquidity, market risk or credit risk support.

 

F.Tabular Disclosure of Contractual Obligations

 

The following table summarizes our contractual obligations as of December 31, 2019 based on contractual payments:

 

(in thousands)  Total   Less than 1 year   1 - 3 years   3 - 5 years   More than 5 years 
Lease liability(1)  $1,292   $572   $720   $   $ 
Liability in respect of research and development grants (undiscounted)(2)   13,602    810    2,385    3,615    6,792 
Others    1    1             
Total   $14,895   $1,383   $3,105   $3,615   $6,792 

 

 

(1)Lease liabilities consist of our corporate facilities and motor vehicles. Our total lease payments on all of our facilities and vehicles are approximately $49,000 per month.

(2)Liability in respect of research and developments consists of the projected royalty payments of 3% of revenues derived from research and developments projects for which participation grants were received from the Israeli Government.

 

ITEM 6.DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES

 

A.Directors and Senior Management

 

The following table sets forth the name, age and position of each of our executive officers and directors as of the date of this Annual Report.

 

Name   Age   Position
Senior Management:        
Christopher R. von Jako   51   President and Chief Executive Officer
Dr. Yiftach Roth   50   Chief Scientist
Hadar Levy   46   Chief Financial Officer & Chief Operations Officer
Moria Ankri   36   Vice President Research and Development
Amit Ginou   39   Vice President Field and Clinical Operations
Directors:        
Dr. David Zacut   68   Chairman of the Board
Avner Hagai(2)   64   Vice Chairman of the Board
Gavriel Magen   60   Director
Eti Mitrany(1)(2)   50   Director
Karen Sarid(1)   69   Director
Prof. Abraham Zangen   51   Director
Yossi Ben Shalom   64   Director
Orly Uri(2)   61   Director
Avner Lushi(1)   53   Director

 

 

(1)Member of our audit committee that also serves as our financial statements committee.
(2)Member of our compensation committee.

 

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Executive officers

 

Christopher R. von Jako serves as our president and chief executive officer since January 1, 2020. Most recently, Dr. von Jako served as CEO of Dynatronics Corporation, a publicly-traded medical device company focusing on high-quality restorative products. Prior to Dynatronics, he served as President and CEO of other companies including NinePoint Medical, Inc. and NeuroTherm, Inc. Earlier in his career, he held increasingly senior roles with other leading medical device companies, including Integra LifeSciences, Covidien, Medtronic, and Radionics. Dr. von Jako holds a Ph.D. in Biomedical Sciences from the University of Pécs, a M.S. degree in Radiological Sciences and Technology from the department of Nuclear Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and a double B.S. degree in Physics and Mathematics from Bates College. He resides in Lynnfield, Massachusetts and continues to serve as an independent director on the boards of NinePoint Medical, Inc. and nView medical Inc.

 

Dr. Yiftach Roth is one of our scientific founders and key inventors of the Deep TMS technology. Dr. Roth has served as our Research and Development Manager since May 2006 and as a member of the Board of Directors since November 2006. In 2010, Dr. Roth became our Chief Scientist. From 2003 through 2006, Dr. Roth worked in the Advanced Technology Center of the Chaim Sheba Medical Center at Tel Hashomer as a researcher in the field of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Dr. Roth holds B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees in Physics and a Ph.D. in Medical Physics from Tel Aviv University.

 

Hadar Levy has served as our Chief Financial Officer since September 2014. Prior to his service at the Company, from August 2011 to September 2014 Mr. Levy served as Chief Financial Officer of the Latin American Division at Amdocs; and from 2008 to 2011, served as Chief Financial Officer & Vice President of Business Development of Notalvision. Prior to this position, he served as Controller of GE Healthcare Israel. Mr. Levy holds a BA in Economics and Accounting from Ruppin and an LLM from Bar Ilan University. Mr. Levy is a Certified Public Accountant.

 

Moria Ankri has served as our Vice President of Research and Development since September 2017. Prior to her service as a Vice President of Research and Development, from 2010 to 2017, Ms. Ankri served as a manager at the Biomedical Development Department of our Company and as a research and development project manager at our Company. Ms. Ankri holds a B.Sc. in Biomedical Engineering from the Jerusalem College of Technology, and and a B.Sc. in neurobiology studies at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

 

Amit Ginou has served as our Vice President of Field and Clinical Operations since October 2013. Previously, Mr. Ginou served as the Clinical Trials Manager of our Company from November 2008 to October 2013. Mr. Ginou holds a B.Sc. in Neuroscience from Bar Ilan University and a MA degree in Law from Bar Ilan University.

 

Directors

 

Dr. David Zacut has served as our Chairman of the Board of Directors since our inception and has been providing consulting services to Brain Research and Development Services since May 2001. Since 1983, Dr. Zacut has been working as a senior practicing physician at Hadassah Hospital, and from 1994 through 2003, he served as a managing director of several large medical centers. In addition, Dr. Zacut serves as a director of several private companies, including Brain Research and Development Services. Dr. Zacut holds an M.D. degree from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

 

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Avner Hagai has served as our Vice Chairman of the Board of Directors since November 2006. He serves as a director at several companies, including at Hofit Kibbutz Kinneret Ltd., a plastics manufacturer, where he has served since 2010, and at Prisma F.S. Ltd., a building management company, where he has served since 2002. Mr. Hagai established A.A. Glass Ltd., an automotive glass and services company, where he has served as a director since 1984.

 

Gavriel Magen has served as our Director since December 2006. Mr. Magen has been the Chief Executive Officer of Polybid Ltd., the largest Expandable Polystyrene (EPS) producer in Israel, since January 1, 2009. From 2007 to 2009 Mr. Magen served as the Chief Executive Officer of Plassim Ltd., an Israeli company that manufactures pipes for numerous applications and from 2000 to 2007 he served as the Chief Executive Officer of Oran Palmach Subba Agricultural Cooperative Society Ltd., an Israeli producer of safety, strengthened and reinforced glass. Mr. Magen holds a BA in Business Administration from the Ruppin Academic Center in Hefer Valley, Israel. He resides in Har Adar.

 

Eti Mitrany has served as our Director since June 2016, and currently serves as chairperson of our compensation committee and a member of our audit committee. Ms. Mitrany previously served as Senior Vice President, Head of the Corporate Economic Department at Teva Pharmaceuticals since 2012, with global responsibility for Teva’s business planning and analysis. Prior to that, Ms. Mitrany held various positions in Teva, including CFO of specialty R&D, and CFO and Director of Financial Planning & Analysis of the global branded business. Ms. Mitrany joined Teva in 1995 as a financial analyst of Copaxone—the first innovative product of Teva for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Ms. Mitrany received her BA in Economics and MBA in Finance, both from Tel-Aviv University.

 

Prof. Avraham Zangen is the Head of the Brain Stimulation and Behavior Lab and the Chair of the PsychoBiology Brain Program at Ben-Gurion University in Israel. His research is directed at identifying and understanding altered neuroplasticity in psychiatric disorders, primarily depression, addiction and ADHD, utilizing brain stimulation and imaging techniques to explore mechanisms and potential clinical applications. He co-developed, along with Dr. Yiftach Roth, the Deep TMS coil which serves as Brainsway’s platform technology. Professor Zangen has published over 150 peer reviewed articles, reviews and book chapters. He has been awarded numerous prizes for his scientific achievements, including the Medical Futures Innovation Award in London, the Sieratzki Prize for Advances in Neuroscience and the Juludan Prize at the Technion. He has also received several distinguished research grants, including from the National Institutes of Health, H2020 and the Israel Science Foundation.

 

Karen Sarid has served as our Director since December 2017 and currently serves as chairperson of our audit committee. Between March 2014 and July 2017, Ms. Sarid served as VP Beauty and Dental and as Chairman of China activities at Syneron Medical Ltd. Between January 2012 and August 2013 Ms. Sarid served as President of Alma Lasers Ltd. Ms. Sarid currently serves as a director of Eva Visual Ltd. She holds a BA in Economics and Accounting from the University of Haifa.

 

Yossi Ben Shalom has served as our Director since December 2018. Mr. Ben Shalom is a co-founder of D.B.S.I, a private investment company specializing in investments in mature companies that are positioned globally for high growth or built for vast expansion through M&As. As such, Mr. Ben Shalom serves as the Chairman of Pointer Telocation Ltd. (Nasdaq: PNTR), Rada (Nasdaq: RADA) and Shagrir Group Car Services Ltd. (TASE: SHGR). He also serves as a director at Taldor Computer Systems (1986) Ltd. (TASE: TALD), Eldan Cargo Ltd., The 8 Note Production & Distribution Ltd., Car 2 Go Ltd., Matzman Et Merutz Milenum Ltd. and Kafrit Industries (1993) Ltd. Mr. Ben Shalom was Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Koor Industries Ltd. from 1998 through to 2000. Before that, Mr. Ben-Shalom served as Chief Financial Officer of Tadiran Ltd. between 1994 and 1998. Mr. Ben Shalom holds a BA in Economics and an MA in Business Administration both from Tel Aviv University.

 

Orly Uri has served as our Director since December 2018. She previously served as our external director, member of our finance committee and chairperson of our audit committee and our compensation committee from 2007 until April 2016. Ms. Uri is a financial, strategic and organizational advisor to institutions, organizations and corporations in the healthcare sector in Israel and abroad. Prior to that she served as head of planning, budgeting and economics department in Leumit HMO between 1996 and 2003. She started her career in Klalit HMO in various financial and audit positions between 1986 and 1999. Ms. Uri was a guest lecturer in Ben Gurion University and in Ashkelon University between 2000 and 2004. Ms. Uri earned a BA in Economics and Business Administration and a M.Sc. in Industrial and Management Engineering—Medical Management, both from Ben Gurion University.

 

Mr. Avner Lushi has served as our Director since January 2020 and currently serves as a member of our audit committee. He co-founded the Guangzhou Sino-Israel Bio-industry Investment Fund (GIBF) which focuses on introducing Israeli and western life sciences companies to the Chinese market, where he also serves as a Managing Partner & CEO. Between 2004 and 2015 Mr. Lushi served as a Partner and Managing Director of Israel Healthcare Ventures (IHCV), a life sciences venture capital fund. From 2001 to 2005, he co-founded and served as CEO of Life Sciences Transaction Support Ltd. (LTS), a PwC subsidiary dealing with life sciences investment banking. Mr. Lushi served as an independent board member at seven public companies, the two last active ones being Raval ICS Ltd. and Ram-On Investments and Holdings (1999) Ltd. In addition, he serves as a board member of several private companies as part of his role at GIBF. In 1997-2001, prior to turning to the private sector, he held increasingly senior roles within the Israeli Prime Minister’s Chamber and the Israeli Supreme Court. Mr. Lushi holds an LLM in Law from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, LLB in Law and a BA in Economics from the Haifa University.

 

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B.Compensation

 

The aggregate compensation paid, and benefits-in-kind granted to or accrued on behalf of all of our directors and executive officers for their services, in all capacities, to us during the year ended December 31, 2019, was approximately $2.6 million. Out of that amount $1.8 million was paid as salary, $0.6 million was attributed to the value of the equity based awards granted to senior management during 2019, approximately $0.2 million was attributed to retirement plans. No additional amounts have been set aside or accrued by us to provide pension, retirement or similar benefits.

 

The compensation terms for our directors and officers are derived from their employment agreements and comply with our amended Compensation Policy for Executive Officers and Directors recently approved by our shareholders in January 2020 (the “Compensation Policy”).

 

The table and summary below outline the compensation granted to our five highest compensated directors and officers during the year ended December 31, 2019. The compensation detailed in the table below refers to actual compensation granted or paid to the director or officer during the year 2019.

 

Name and position of director or officer  Base
Salary
or Other
Payments(1)
   Value of
Social
benefits(2)
   Value of
Equity Based
Compensation
Granted(3)
   All Other
Compensation(4)
   Total 
Amounts in U.S.$ dollars are based on 2019 monthly average representative U.S. dollar—NIS rate of exchange
Yaacov Michlin, former CEO    626,000    67,000    190,000    21,000    904,000 
Hadar Levy, CFO    372,000    6,000    181,000    31,000    590,000 
Joseph Perekupka, former VP Sales, North America    326,000    11,000    41,000        337,000 
Amit Ginou, VP Field and Clinical Operations    133,000    37,000    79,000    15,000    264,000 
Moria Ankri, VP Research and Development    129,000    35,000    63,000    12,000    239,000 

 

 

(1)“Base Salary or Other Payments” means the aggregate yearly gross monthly salaries or other payments with respect our senior management and members of the board of directors for the year ended December 31, 2019.
(2)“Social Benefits” include payments to the National Insurance Institute, advanced education funds, managers’ insurance and pension funds; vacation pay; and recuperation pay as mandated by Israeli law.
(3)Consists of the fair value of the equity-based compensation granted during the year ended December 31, 2019 in exchange for the directors and officers services recognized as an expense in profit or loss and is carried to the accumulated deficit under equity. The total amount recognized as an expense over the vesting period of the options.
(4)“All Other Compensation” includes, among other things, car-related expenses (including tax gross-up) and communication expenses.

 

In addition, all of our directors and executive officers are covered under our directors’ and executive officers’ liability insurance policies and were granted letters of indemnification by us.

 

Employment Agreements

 

We have entered into written employment or service agreements with each member of our senior management. All of these agreements contain customary provisions regarding noncompetition, confidentiality of information and assignment of inventions.  However, the enforceability of the noncompetition provisions may be limited under applicable laws.

 

For information on exemption and indemnification letters granted to our directors and officers, please see “Item 6C. – Board Practices – Exemption, Insurance and Indemnification of Directors and Officers.”

 

Director Compensation 

 

We currently pay our non-executive directors an annual cash fee of NIS 28,980 (approximately $8,000) and a cash fee of NIS 1,800 (approximately $500) per meeting (or a smaller amount in the case where they do not physically attend the meeting).

 

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Compensation Policy

 

In general, under the Israeli Companies Law, a public company must have a compensation policy approved by the board of directors after receiving and considering the recommendations of the compensation committee. In addition, the compensation policy requires the approval of the general meeting of the shareholders. In public companies such as our Company, shareholder approval requires one of the following: (i) the majority of shareholder votes counted at a general meeting including the majority of all of the votes of those shareholders who are non-controlling shareholders and do not have a personal interest in the approval of the compensation policy, who vote at the meeting (excluding abstentions) or (ii) the total number of votes against the proposal among the shareholders mentioned in paragraph (i) does exceed two percent (2%) of the voting rights in the company. Under special circumstances, the board of directors may approve the compensation policy despite the objection of the shareholders on the condition that the compensation committee and then the board of directors decide, on the basis of detailed arguments and after discussing again the compensation policy, that approval of the compensation policy, despite the objection of the meeting of shareholders, is for the benefit of the company.

 

The compensation policy must be based on certain considerations, include certain provisions and needs to reference certain matters as set forth in the Israeli Companies Law.

 

The compensation policy must serve as the basis for decisions concerning the financial terms of employment or engagement of office holders, including exculpation, insurance, indemnification or any monetary payment or obligation of payment in respect of employment or engagement. The compensation policy must relate to certain factors, including advancement of the company’s objectives, business plan and long-term strategy, and creation of appropriate incentives for office holders. It must also consider, among other things, the company’s risk management, size and the nature of its operations. The compensation policy must furthermore consider the following additional factors:

 

the education, skills, experience, expertise and accomplishments of the relevant office holder;

 

the office holder’s position, responsibilities and prior compensation agreements with him or her;

 

the ratio between the cost of the terms of employment of an office holder and the cost of the employment of other employees of the company, including employees employed through contractors who provide services to the company, in particular the ratio between such cost, the average and median salary of the employees of the company, as well as the impact of such disparities on the work relationships in the company;

 

if the terms of employment include variable components—the possibility of reducing variable components at the discretion of the board of directors and the possibility of setting a limit on the value of variable equity-based components not settled in cash; and

 

if the terms of employment include severance compensation—the term of employment or office of the office holder, the terms of his or her compensation during such period, the company’s performance during the such period, his or her individual contribution to the achievement of the company goals and the maximization of its profits and the circumstances under which he or she is leaving the company.

 

The compensation policy must also include, among others:

 

with regards to variable components in the terms of office and employment:

 

with the exception of office holders who report directly to the chief executive officer, determining the variable components on long-term performance basis and on measurable criteria; however, the company may determine that an immaterial part of the variable components of the compensation package of an office holder’s shall be awarded based on non-measurable criteria, if such amount is not higher than three monthly salaries per annum, while taking into account such office holder contribution to the company;

 

the ratio between variable and fixed components, as well as the limit of the values of variable components at the time of their payment. However, with respect to variable equity-based components that are not settled in cash, the limit of their value at the time of grant.

 

a condition under which the office holder will return to the company, according to conditions to be set forth in the compensation policy, any amounts paid as part of his or her terms of employment, if such amounts were paid based on information later to be discovered to be wrong, and such information was restated in the company’s financial statements;

 

the minimum holding or vesting period of variable equity-based components to be set in the terms of office or employment, as applicable, while taking into consideration long-term incentives; and

 

a limit to retirement grants.

 

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Our compensation policy is designed to promote retention and motivation of directors and senior management, incentivize superior individual excellence, align the interests of our directors and senior management with our long-term performance and provide a risk management tool. To that end, a portion of an executive officer compensation package is targeted to reflect our short and long-term goals, as well as the executive officer’s individual performance. On the other hand, our compensation policy includes measures designed to reduce the executive officer’s incentives to take excessive risks that may harm us in the long-term, such as limitations on the value of cash bonuses and equity-based compensation to a maximum number of monthly salaries, limitations on the ratio between the variable and the total compensation of an executive officer and minimum vesting periods for equity-based compensation.

 

Our compensation policy also addresses our executive officer’s individual characteristics (such as his or her respective position, education, scope of responsibilities and contribution to the attainment of our goals) as the basis for compensation variation among our senior management, and considers the internal ratios between compensation of our senior management and directors and other employees. Pursuant to our compensation policy, the compensation that may be granted to an executive officer may include: base salary, indemnification and insurance, annual bonuses and other cash bonuses (such as a signing bonus and special bonuses with respect to any special achievements, such as outstanding personal achievement, outstanding personal effort or outstanding company performance), equity-based compensation, social benefits and retirement and termination of service arrangements. All cash bonuses to executive officers (except for “special bonuses”) are limited to a maximum amount linked to the executive officer’s base salary. In addition, the total variable compensation components (cash bonuses and equity-based compensation) may not exceed 60% for office holder which is not the CEO, or 70% for the CEO, of each executive officer’s total compensation package with respect to any given calendar year.

 

An annual cash bonus may be awarded to senior management upon the attainment of pre-set periodic objectives and individual targets. The annual cash bonus that may be granted to our senior management other than our chief executive officer will be based on performance objectives and a discretionary evaluation of the executive officer’s overall performance by our chief executive officer and subject to minimum thresholds. The annual cash bonus that may be granted to senior management other than our chief executive officer may be based in a rate of up to 20% on a discretionary evaluation. Furthermore, our chief executive officer will be entitled to recommend performance objectives, and such performance objectives will be approved by our compensation committee (and, if required by law, by our board of directors).

 

The performance measurable objectives of our chief executive officer will be determined annually by our compensation committee and board of directors, will include the weight to be assigned to each achievement in the overall evaluation. A portion of up to 40% the chief executive officer’s annual cash bonus may be based on a discretionary evaluation of the chief executive officer’s overall performance by the compensation committee and the board of directors based on quantitative and qualitative criteria.

 

The equity-based compensation under our compensation policy for our officers and directors is designed in a manner consistent with the underlying objectives in determining the base salary and the annual cash bonus, with its main objectives being to enhance the alignment between the officers’ and directors’ interests with our long-term interests and those of our shareholders and to strengthen the retention and the motivation of senior management in the long term. Our compensation policy provides for officers and directors compensation in the form of stock options or other equity-based awards, such as restricted shares and restricted share units, in accordance with our Share Incentive Plan then in place. All equity-based incentives granted to officers and directors shall be subject to vesting periods in order to promote long-term retention of the awarded officer or director. The equity-based compensation shall be granted from time to time and be individually determined and awarded according to the performance, educational background, prior business experience, qualifications, role and the personal responsibilities of the officer or director.

 

In addition, our compensation policy contains compensation recovery provisions which allows us under certain conditions to recover bonuses paid in excess, enables our chief executive officer to approve an immaterial change in the terms of employment of an executive officer (provided that the changes of the terms of employment are in accordance our compensation policy) and allows us to exculpate, indemnify and insure our senior management and directors subject to certain limitations set forth thereto.

 

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Our compensation policy also provides for compensation to the members of our board of directors (except for the chairman and such directors that are employed by, or provides services, directly or through companies in their control, to the Company in another role) either (i) in accordance with the amounts provided in the Companies Regulations (Rules Regarding the Compensation and Expenses of an External Director) of 2000, as amended by the Companies Regulations (Relief for Public Companies Traded in Stock Exchange Outside of Israel) of 2000, as such regulations may be amended from time to time, or (ii) in accordance with the amounts determined in our compensation policy.

 

Our compensation policy was approved by our shareholders on September 6, 2018 and amendments thereto were approved by our shareholders on January 24, 2019 and on January 13, 2020.

 

C.Board Practices

 

Appointment of Directors and Terms of Officers

 

Our board of directors consists of nine (9) directors, including seven (7) directors who qualify as “independent” under applicable U.S. securities laws and Nasdaq listing rules: Avner Hagai, Gavriel Magen, Karen Sarid, Eti Mitrany, Yossi Ben Shalom, Orly Uri and Avner Lushi.

 

Under our articles of association, the number of directors on our board of directors will be not less than four (4) but no more than nine (9) directors, not including any external directors to the extent required to be appointed by the Israeli Companies Law, and not including up to two (2) additional directors who may be appointed by our board of directors whose term of office would expire on the first annual meeting of shareholders after their appointment, at which they may be re-elected by such general meeting subject to the total number of directors not exceeding nine (9).

 

Under our articles of association, our board of directors may elect new directors if the number of directors is below the maximum provided in the articles of association, and the term of office of such elected directors shall be until the next general meeting of our shareholders.

 

Under Israeli law, the chief executive officer of a public company may not serve as the chairman of the board of directors of the company unless approved by a special majority of our shareholders as required under the Israeli Companies Law.

 

In addition, under the Israeli Companies Law, our board of directors must determine the minimum number of directors who are required to have financial and accounting expertise. Under applicable regulations, a director with financial and accounting expertise is a director who, by reason of his or her education, professional experience and skill, has a high level of proficiency in and understanding of business accounting matters and financial statements. He or she must be able to thoroughly comprehend the financial statements of the company and initiate debate regarding the manner in which financial information is presented. In determining the number of directors required to have such expertise, the board of directors must consider, among other things, the type and size of the company and the scope and complexity of its operations. Our board of directors has determined that we have at least two directors with the requisite financial and accounting expertise.

 

There are no arrangements or understandings between us, on the one hand, and any of our directors, on the other hand, providing for benefits upon termination of their employment or service as directors of our Company.

 

Independent and External Directors - Israeli Companies Law Requirements

 

Under the Israeli Companies Law, we would be required to include on our board of directors at least two members, each of whom qualifies as an external director, and as to whom special qualifications, voting requirements and other provisions would be applicable. We would also be required to include one such external director on each of our board committees.

 

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Under regulations promulgated under the Israeli Companies Law, Israeli companies whose shares are traded on stock exchanges such as the Nasdaq that do not have a controlling shareholder (as defined therein) and which comply with the requirements of the jurisdiction where the company’s shares are traded with respect to the appointment of independent directors and the composition of an audit committee and compensation committee, may elect not to follow the Israeli Companies Law requirements with respect to the composition of its audit committee and compensation committee and the appointment of external directors. As we do not have a controlling shareholder, we comply with the requirements of the Nasdaq with respect to the composition of our board and such committees, and therefore we are exempt from the Israeli Companies Law requirements with respect thereto, including the appointment of external directors.

 

Committees

 

Israeli Companies Law Requirements

 

Our board of directors has established two standing committees, the audit committee (which serves also as our financial statements committee) and the compensation committee.

 

Audit Committee

 

Israeli Companies Law Requirements

 

Under the Israeli Companies Law, the board of directors of any public company must also appoint an audit committee comprised of at least three directors, including all of the external directors (if any). The audit committee may not include:

 

the chairman of the board of directors;

 

a controlling shareholder or a relative of a controlling shareholder;

 

any director employed by us or by one of our controlling shareholders or by an entity controlled by our controlling shareholders (other than as a member of the board of directors); or

 

any director who regularly provides services to us, to one of our controlling shareholders or to an entity controlled by our controlling shareholders.

 

According to the Israeli Companies Law, the majority of the members of the audit committee, as well as the majority of members present at audit committee meetings, will be required to be “independent” (as defined below) and the chairman of the audit committee will be required to be an external director. Any persons disqualified from serving as a member of the audit committee may not be present at the audit committee meetings, unless the chairman of the audit committee has determined that such person is required to be present at the meeting or if such person qualifies under one of the exemptions of the Israeli Companies Law.

 

The term “independent director” is defined under the Israeli Companies Law as an external director or a director who meets the following conditions and who is appointed or classified as such according to the Israeli Companies Law: (1) the conditions for his or her appointment as an external director (as described above) are satisfied and the audit committee approves the director having met such conditions and (2) he or she has not served as a director of the company for over nine consecutive years with any interruption of up to two years of his or her service not being deemed a disruption to the continuity of his or her service.

 

Pursuant to regulations promulgated under the Israeli Companies Law, we comply with the requirements of Nasdaq with respect to the composition of our audit committee and compensation committee and do not follow the Israeli Companies Law requirements with respect to the composition of such committees, such as those described above. See “Management—Our Board of Directors.”

 

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Nasdaq Listing Requirements

 

Under the Nasdaq corporate governance rules, we are required to maintain an audit committee consisting of at least three independent directors, all of whom are financially literate and one of whom has accounting or related financial management expertise.

 

Our audit committee consists of Karen Sarid, Eti Mitrany and Avner Lushi. Karen Sarid serves as Chairperson of the committee. All members of our audit committee meet the requirements for financial literacy under the applicable rules and regulations of the SEC and the Nasdaq corporate governance rules. Our board of directors has determined that each of Karen Sarid, Eti Mitrany and Avner Lushi is an audit committee financial expert as defined by SEC rules and has the requisite financial experience as defined by the Nasdaq listing rules.

 

Each of the members of the audit committee is “independent” as such term is defined in Rule 10A-3(b)(1) under the Exchange Act.

 

Approval of Transactions with Related Parties

 

The approval of the audit committee is required to effect specified actions and transactions with office holders and controlling shareholders and their relatives, or in which they have a personal interest. See “Management—Fiduciary Duties and Approval of Specified Related Party Transactions and Compensation under Israeli Law.” The audit committee may not approve an action or a transaction with a controlling shareholder or with an office holder unless at the time of approval the audit committee meets the composition requirements under the Israeli Companies Law.

 

Audit Committee Charter

 

Our board of directors adopted an audit committee charter setting forth the responsibilities of the audit committee consistent with the rules of the SEC and the Nasdaq corporate governance rules, which include:

 

retaining and terminating our independent auditors, subject to board of directors and shareholder ratification;

 

overseeing the independence, compensation and performance of our independent auditors;

 

the appointment, compensation, retention and oversight of any accounting firm engaged for the purpose of preparing or issuing an audit report or performing other audit services;

 

pre-approval of audit and non-audit services to be provided by the independent auditors;

 

reviewing with management and our independent directors our financial statements prior to their submission to the SEC; and

 

approval of certain transactions with office holders and controlling shareholders, as described below, and other related party transactions.

 

Additionally, under the Israeli Companies Law, the role of the audit committee includes the identification of irregularities in our business management, among other things, by consulting with the internal auditor or our independent auditors and suggesting an appropriate course of action to the board of directors. In addition, the audit committee or the board of directors, as set forth in the articles of association of the company, is required to approve the yearly or periodic work plan proposed by the internal auditor. The audit committee is required to assess the company’s internal audit system and the performance of its internal auditor. The Israeli Companies Law also requires that the audit committee assess the scope of the work and compensation of the company’s external auditor. In addition, the audit committee is required to determine whether certain related party actions and transactions are “material” or “extraordinary” for the purpose of the requisite approval procedures under the Israeli Companies Law and whether certain transactions with a controlling shareholder will be subject to a competitive procedure. The audit committee charter states that in fulfilling its role the committee is empowered to conduct or authorize investigations into any matters within its scope of responsibilities. A company whose audit committee’s composition also meets the requirements set for the composition of a compensation committee (as further detailed below) may have one committee acting as both audit and compensation committees.

 

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Compensation Committee

 

Under the Israeli Companies Law, public companies are required to appoint a compensation committee in accordance with the guidelines set forth thereunder.

 

The compensation committee must consist of at least three members. All of the external directors, if any, must serve on the committee and constitute a majority of its members. The chairman of the compensation committee must be an external director. The remaining members are not required to be external directors, but must be directors who qualify to serve as members of the audit committee (as described above).

 

The compensation committee, which consists of Eti Mitrany, Avner Hagai and Orly Uri, assists the board of directors in determining compensation for our directors and officers. Eti Mitrany serves as Chairperson of the committee. Under SEC and Nasdaq rules, there are heightened independence standards for members of the compensation committee, including a prohibition against the receipt of any compensation from us other than standard supervisory board member fees. Although foreign private issuers are not required to meet this heightened standard, our board of directors has determined that all of our expected compensation committee members meet this heightened standard.

 

In accordance with the Israeli Companies Law, the roles of the compensation committee are, among others, as follows:

 

(1)to recommend to the board of directors the compensation policy for directors and officers, and to recommend to the board of directors once every three years whether the compensation policy that had been approved should be extended for a period of more than three years;

 

(2)to recommend to the board of directors updates to the compensation policy, from time to time, and examine its implementation;

 

(3)to decide whether to approve the terms of office and employment of directors and officers that require approval of the compensation committee; and

 

(4)to decide whether the compensation terms of the chief executive officer, which were determined pursuant to the compensation policy, will be exempted from approval by the shareholders because such approval would harm the ability to engage the chief executive officer.

 

In addition to the roles mentioned above our compensation committee also makes recommendations to our board of directors regarding the awarding of employee equity grants.

 

In addition to the above, our compensation committee is entitled to agree to prior notice periods for resignation or dismissal within the context of certain acceleration events, and to agree to up to 12 months full payment of the compensation package and fringe benefits, upon termination by us of an engagement with an officer or an employee outside of Israel. These authorities are intended to allow more flexibility when hiring executives outside Israel, with a view to support our commitment to a strategic transition to US-based leadership.

 

Pursuant to regulations promulgated under the Israeli Companies Law, we comply with the requirements of the Nasdaq with respect to the composition of our audit committee and compensation committee and do not follow the Israeli Companies Law requirements with respect to the composition of such committees, such as those described above. See “Management—Our Board of Directors.”

 

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NASDAQ Stock Market Requirements

 

Under the NASDAQ Listing Rules, we are required to maintain an audit committee consisting of at least three members, all of whom are independent and are financially literate and one of whom has accounting or related financial management expertise.

 

The independence requirements of Rule 10A-3 of the Exchange Act implement two basic criteria for determining independence:

 

audit committee members are barred from accepting directly or indirectly any consulting, advisory or other compensatory fee from the issuer or an affiliate of the issuer, other than in the member’s capacity as a member of the board of directors and any board committee; and

 

audit committee members may not be an “affiliated person” of the issuer or any subsidiary of the issuer apart from her or his capacity as a member of the board of directors and any board committee.

 

The SEC has defined “affiliate” for non-investment companies as “a person that directly, or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls, or is controlled by, or is under common control with, the person specified.” The term “control” is intended to be consistent with the other definitions of this term under the Exchange Act, as “the possession, direct or indirect, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of a person, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by contract, or otherwise.” A safe harbor has been adopted by the SEC, under which a person who is not an executive officer or 10% shareholder of the issuer would be deemed not to have control of the issuer.

 

In accordance with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the NASDAQ Listing Rules, the audit committee is directly responsible for the appointment, compensation, and performance of our independent auditors. In addition, the audit committee is responsible for assisting the board of directors in reviewing our annual financial statements, the adequacy of our internal control and our compliance with legal and regulatory requirements. The audit committee also oversees our major financial risk exposures and policies for managing such potential risks, discusses with management and our independent auditor significant risks or exposure and assesses the steps management has taken to minimize such risk.

 

As noted above, the members of our audit committee include Karen Sarid, Eti Mitrany and Avner Lushi, with Karen Sarid serving as chairperson. All members of our audit committee meet the requirements for financial literacy under the NASDAQ Listing Rules. Our board of directors has determined that each of Karen Sarid, Eti Mitrany and Avner Lushi is an audit committee financial expert as defined by the SEC rules and all members of the audit committee have the requisite financial experience as defined by the NASDAQ Listing Rules. Each of the members of the audit committee is “independent” as such term is defined in Rule 10A-3(b)(1) under the Exchange Act..

 

Corporate Governance Practices

 

Internal Auditor

 

Under the Israeli Companies Law, the board of directors of a public company must appoint an internal auditor based on the recommendation of the audit committee. The role of the internal auditor is, among other things, to examine whether a company’s actions comply with applicable law and orderly business procedure. Under the Israeli Companies Law, the internal auditor may not be an interested party or an office holder or a relative of an interested party or of an office holder, nor may the internal auditor be the company’s independent auditor or the representative of the same.

 

An “interested party” is defined in the Israeli Companies Law as (i) a holder of 5% or more of the issued share capital or voting power in a company, (ii) any person or entity who has the right to designate one or more directors or to designate the chief executive officer of the company, or (iii) any person who serves as a director or as a chief executive officer of the company. Recently and through the end of March 2019. Mr. Rami Itselev has served as our internal auditor. As of April 1, 2019, we plan to retain Mr. Yisrael Gewirtz of Fahn Kanne Control Management Ltd. (Grant Thornton Israel) to serve in this capacity.

 

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Duties of Directors and Officers and Approval of Specified Related Party Transactions under the Israeli Companies Law

 

Fiduciary Duties and Duty of Care of Office Holders

 

The Israeli Companies Law imposes a duty of care and a fiduciary duty on all office holders of a company. The duty of care of an office holder is based on the duty of care set forth in connection with the tort of negligence under the Israeli Torts Ordinance (New Version) 5728-1968. This duty of care requires an office holder to act with the degree of proficiency with which a reasonable office holder in the same position would have acted under the same circumstances. The duty of care includes, among other things, a duty to use reasonable means, in light of the circumstances, to obtain:

 

information on the business advisability of a given action brought for his or her approval or performed by virtue of his or her position; and

 

all other important information pertaining to such action.

 

The fiduciary duty incumbent on an office holder requires him or her to act in good faith and for the benefit of the company, and includes, among other things, the duty to:

 

refrain from any act involving a conflict of interest between the performance of his or her duties in the company and his or her other duties or personal affairs;

 

refrain from any activity that is competitive with the business of the company;

 

refrain from exploiting any business opportunity of the company for the purpose of gaining a personal advantage for himself or herself or others; and

 

disclose to the company any information or documents relating to the company’s affairs which the office holder received as a result of his or her position as an office holder.

 

We may approve an act specified above which would otherwise constitute a breach of the office holder’s fiduciary duty, provided that the office holder acted in good faith, the act or its approval does not harm the company, and the office holder discloses his or her personal interest, including any material fact or document, a reasonable time before consideration of the approval of such act. Any such approval is subject to the terms of the Israeli Companies Law, setting forth, among other things, the appropriate bodies of the company entitled to provide such approval, and the methods of obtaining such approval.

 

Disclosure of Personal Interests of an Office Holder and Approval of Transactions

 

The Israeli Companies Law requires that an office holder disclose to the company without delay any personal interest that he or she may have and all related material information or documents relating to any existing or proposed transaction by the company. An interested office holder’s disclosure must be made without delay and in any event no later than the first meeting of the board of directors at which the transaction is considered. An office holder is not obliged to disclose such information if the personal interest of the office holder derives solely from the personal interest of his or her relative in a transaction that is not considered an extraordinary transaction.

 

Under the Israeli Companies Law, once an office holder has complied with the above disclosure requirement, a company may approve a transaction between the company and the office holder or a third party in which the office holder has a personal interest. However, a company may not approve a transaction or action that is not to the company’s benefit.

 

Under the Israeli Companies Law, unless the articles of association of a company provide otherwise, a transaction with an office holder or with a third party in which the office holder has a personal interest, which is not an extraordinary transaction, requires approval by the board of directors. If the transaction considered is an extraordinary transaction with an office holder or third party in which the office holder has a personal interest, then audit committee approval is required prior to approval by the board of directors. For the approval of compensation arrangements with directors and senior management, see “Management—Disclosure of Compensation of Directors and Senior Management.”

 

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Any persons who have a personal interest in the approval of a transaction that is brought before a meeting of the board of directors or the audit committee, except for a transaction with an office holder or with a third party in which the office holder has a personal interest, which is not an extraordinary transaction, may not be present at the meeting or vote on the matter. However, if the chairman of the board of directors or the chairman of the audit committee has determined that the presence of an office holder with a personal interest is required, such office holder may be present at the meeting for the purpose of presenting the matter. Notwithstanding the foregoing, a director who has a personal interest may be present at the meeting and vote on the matter if a majority of the directors or members of the audit committee have a personal interest in the approval of such transaction. If a majority of the directors at a board of directors meeting have a personal interest in the transaction, such transaction also requires approval of the shareholders of the company.

 

A “personal interest” is defined under the Israeli Companies Law as the personal interest of a person in an action or in a transaction of the company, including the personal interest of such person’s relative or the interest of any other corporate body in which the person and/or such person’s relative is a director or general manager, a 5% shareholder or holds 5% or more of the voting rights, or has the right to appoint at least one director or the general manager, but excluding a personal interest stemming solely from the fact of holding shares in the company. A personal interest also includes (1) a personal interest of a person who votes according to a proxy of another person, including in the event that the other person has no personal interest, and (2) a personal interest of a person who gave a proxy to another person to vote on his or her behalf regardless of whether or not the discretion of how to vote lies with the person voting.

 

An “extraordinary transaction” is defined under the Israeli Companies Law as any of the following:

 

a transaction other than in the ordinary course of business;

 

a transaction that is not on market terms; or

 

a transaction that may have a material impact on the company’s profitability, assets or liabilities.

 

Disclosure of Personal Interests of a Controlling Shareholder and Approval of Transactions

 

The Israeli Companies Law also requires that a controlling shareholder disclose to the company without delay any personal interest that he or she may have and all related material information or documents relating to any existing or proposed transaction by the company. A controlling shareholder’s disclosure must be made without delay and in any event no later than the first meeting of the board of directors at which the transaction is considered. Extraordinary transactions with a controlling shareholder or in which a controlling shareholder has a personal interest, including a private placement in which a controlling shareholder has a personal interest, and the terms of engagement of the company, directly or indirectly, with a controlling shareholder or a controlling shareholder’s relative (including through a corporation controlled by a controlling shareholder), regarding the company’s receipt of services from the controlling shareholder, and if such controlling shareholder is also an office holder or employee of the company, regarding his or her terms of employment, require the approval of each of (i) the audit committee or the compensation committee with respect to the terms of the engagement of the company, (ii) the board of directors and (iii) the shareholders, in that order. In addition, the shareholder approval must fulfill one of the following requirements:

 

a majority of the shares held by shareholders who have no personal interest in the transaction and are voting at the meeting must be voted in favor of approving the transaction, excluding abstentions; or

 

the shares voted by shareholders who have no personal interest in the transaction who vote against the transaction represent no more than two percent (2%) of the voting rights in the company.

 

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In addition, an extraordinary transaction with a controlling shareholder or in which a controlling shareholder has a personal interest, and an engagement of the company, directly or indirectly, with a controlling shareholder or a controlling shareholder’s relative (including through a corporation controlled by a controlling shareholder), regarding the company’s receipt of services from the controlling shareholder, and if such controlling shareholder is also an office holder or employee of the company, regarding his or her terms of employment, in each case with a term of more than three years requires the abovementioned approval every three years; however, transactions not involving the receipt of services or compensation can be approved for a longer term, provided that the audit committee determines that such longer term is reasonable under the circumstances. In addition, transactions with a controlling shareholder or a controlling shareholder’s relative who serves as an officer in a company, directly or indirectly (including through a corporation under his control), involving the receipt of services by a company or their compensation can have a term of five years from the company’s initial public offering under certain circumstances.

 

The Israeli Companies Law requires that every shareholder that participates, in person, by proxy or by voting instrument, in a vote regarding a transaction with a controlling shareholder, must indicate in advance or in the ballot whether or not that shareholder has a personal interest in the vote in question. Failure to so indicate will result in the invalidation of that shareholder’s vote.

 

Duties of Shareholders

 

Under the Israeli Companies Law, a shareholder has a duty to act in good faith and in an acceptable manner in exercising its rights and performing its obligations towards the company and other shareholders and to refrain from abusing its power in the company, including, among other things, when voting at meetings of shareholders on the following matters:

 

an amendment to the articles of association;

 

an increase in the company’s authorized share capital;

 

a merger; and

 

the approval of related party transactions and acts of office holders that require shareholder approval.

 

A shareholder also has a general duty to refrain from discriminating against other shareholders.

 

The remedies generally available upon a breach of contract will also apply to a breach of the shareholder duties mentioned above, and in the event of discrimination against other shareholders, additional remedies may be available to the injured shareholder.

 

In addition, any controlling shareholder, any shareholder that knows that its vote can determine the outcome of a shareholder vote (including in a class meeting) and any shareholder that, under a company’s articles of association, has the power to appoint or prevent the appointment of an office holder, or any other power with respect to a company, is under a duty to act with fairness towards the company. The Israeli Companies Law does not describe the substance of this duty except to state that the remedies generally available upon a breach of contract will also apply in the event of a breach of the duty to act with fairness, taking the shareholder’s position in the company into account.

 

Approval of Private Placements

 

Under the Israeli Companies Law and the regulations promulgated thereunder, a private placement of securities does not require approval at a general meeting of the shareholders of a company; provided however, that in special circumstances, such as a private placement which is intended to obviate the need to conduct a special tender offer (see “Description of Share Capital—Acquisitions under Israeli Law”) or a private placement which qualifies as a related party transaction (see “Management—Fiduciary Duties and Approval of Specified Related Party Transactions and Compensation under Israeli Law”), approval at a general meeting of the shareholders of a company is required.

 

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Exculpation, Insurance and Indemnification of Directors and Officers

 

Under the Israeli Companies Law, a company may not exculpate an office holder from liability for a breach of the fiduciary duty. An Israeli company may exculpate an office holder in advance from liability to the company, in whole or in part, for damages caused to the company as a result of a breach of the office holder’s duty of care but only if a provision authorizing such exculpation is included in its articles of association. Our articles of association include such a provision. A company may not exculpate in advance a director from liability arising due to the breach of his or her duty of care in connection with dividend or distribution to shareholders.

 

Under the Israeli Companies Law and the Israeli Securities Law, 5728-1968 (the “Israeli Securities Law”) a company may indemnify an office holder in respect of the following liabilities, payments and expenses incurred for acts performed by him or her as an office holder, either in advance of an event or following an event, provided its articles of association include a provision authorizing such indemnification:

 

a monetary liability incurred by or imposed on the office holder in favor of another person pursuant to a court judgment, including pursuant to a settlement confirmed as judgment or arbitrator’s decision approved by a competent court. However, if an undertaking to indemnify an office holder with respect to such liability is provided in advance, then such an undertaking must be limited to events which, in the opinion of the board of directors, can be foreseen based on the company’s activities when the undertaking to indemnify is given, and to an amount or according to criteria determined by the board of directors as reasonable under the circumstances, and such undertaking shall detail the abovementioned foreseen events and amount or criteria;

 

reasonable litigation expenses, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, which were incurred by the office holder as a result of an investigation or proceeding filed against the office holder by an authority authorized to conduct such investigation or proceeding, provided that such investigation or proceeding was either (i) concluded without the filing of an indictment against such office holder and without the imposition on him of any monetary obligation in lieu of a criminal proceeding; (ii) concluded without the filing of an indictment against the office holder but with the imposition of a monetary obligation on the office holder in lieu of criminal proceedings for an offense that does not require proof of criminal intent; or (iii) in connection with a monetary sanction;

 

a monetary liability imposed on the office holder in favor of a payment for a breach offended at an Administrative Procedure (as defined below) as set forth in Section 52(54)(a)(1)(a) to the Israeli Securities Law;

 

expenses expended by the office holder with respect to an Administrative Procedure under the Israeli Securities Law, including reasonable litigation expenses and reasonable attorneys’ fees;

 

reasonable litigation expenses, including attorneys’ fees, incurred by the office holder or which were imposed on the office holder by a court (i) in a proceeding instituted against him or her by the company, on its behalf, or by a third party, (ii) in connection with criminal indictment of which the office holder was acquitted, or (iii) in a criminal indictment which the office holder was convicted of an offense that does not require proof of criminal intent; and

 

any other obligation or expense in respect of which it is permitted or will be permitted under applicable law to indemnify an office holder, including, without limitation, matters referenced in Section 56H(b)(1) of the Israeli Securities Law.

 

An “Administrative Procedure” is defined as a procedure pursuant to chapters H3 (Monetary Sanction by the Israeli Securities Authority), H4 (Administrative Enforcement Procedures of the Administrative Enforcement Committee) or I1 (Arrangement to prevent Procedures or Interruption of procedures subject to conditions) to the Israeli Securities Law.

 

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Under the Israeli Companies Law and the Israeli Securities Law, a company may insure an office holder against the following liabilities incurred for acts performed by him or her as an office holder if and to the extent provided in the company’s articles of association:

 

a breach of the fiduciary duty to the company, provided that the office holder acted in good faith and had a reasonable basis to believe that the act would not harm the company;

 

a breach of duty of care to the company or to a third party, to the extent such a breach arises out of the negligent conduct of the office holder;

 

a monetary liability imposed on the office holder in favor of a third party;

 

a monetary liability imposed on the office holder in favor of an injured party at an Administrative Procedure pursuant to Section 52(54)(a)(1)(a) of the Israeli Securities Law; and

 

expenses incurred by an office holder in connection with an Administrative Procedure, including reasonable litigation expenses and reasonable attorneys’ fees.

 

Under the Israeli Companies Law, a company may not indemnify, exculpate or insure an office holder against any of the following:

 

a breach of the fiduciary duty, except for indemnification and insurance for a breach of the fiduciary duty to the company to the extent that the office holder acted in good faith and had a reasonable basis to believe that the act would not prejudice the company;

 

a breach of duty of care committed intentionally or recklessly, excluding a breach solely arising out of the negligent conduct of the office holder;

 

an act or omission committed with intent to derive illegal personal benefit; or

 

a fine, civil fine, financial sanction or forfeit levied against the office holder.

 

Under the Israeli Companies Law, exculpation, indemnification and insurance of office holders must be approved by the compensation committee and the board of directors and, with respect to directors or controlling shareholders, their relatives and third parties in which controlling shareholders have a personal interest, also by the shareholders.

 

Our articles of association permit us to exculpate, indemnify and insure our office holders to the fullest extent permitted or to be permitted by law. Our office holders are currently covered by a directors’ and officers’ liability insurance policy. As of the date of this report, no claims for directors’ and officers’ liability insurance have been filed under this policy and we are not aware of any pending or threatened litigation or proceeding involving any of our office holders, including our directors, in which indemnification is sought.

 

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D.Employees

 

Our employees include professionals with extensive experience in medical device development and applications, neurology and psychopathology, pre-clinical experimentation, clinical development and business development.

 

As of December 31, 2019, we had 107 employees, of which 39 are based in the United States and 68 are based outside of the United States (mainly in Israel). This includes 28 employees in sales and marketing (including 22 in the United States) and 30 employees in clinical trials and research and development.

 

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   As of December 31, 
   2019   2018   2017 
   Company   Company   Company 
   Employees   Employees   Employees 
Management, administration and operations   49